Design Visualization for Architects,every Design Has a Story.

A high-impact visualization can make the difference between winning a bid or walking away empty-handed.

Architects, designers, engineers and visualization specialists use Autodesk® 3ds Max® Design software to tell emotionally engaging stories of their designs in order to help win
competitive bids. In addition, design visualization with 3ds Max Design helps them make more informed decisions visually throughout the building information modeling (BIM) process. Whether exploring complex organic forms, studying how light interacts with a design, or evaluating designs for planning and public outreach, visualization plays a role at nearly every stage of development, from schematics to final presentation.
Powerful Creative Tools Autodesk gives you leading 3D design visualization tools that help you gain a deeper understanding of a project before it is real. You can see how the design works and uncover areas where problems exist. The earlier in the design process this type of review is done, the easier issues are able to be resolved. Ultimately, design visualization can help you create better designs and sharpen your competitive edge.

Explore, Validate, and Communicate At the heart of Autodesk’s design visualization solutions is 3ds Max Design software, a comprehensive 3D modeling and visualization application derived from the same technology used to help create Hollywood blockbusters and award-winning game titles. 3ds Max Design can help bring your design to life by importing data from many sources to better establish the context of the design,
enabling you to create more compelling visuals to tell your story. 3ds Max Design delivers extensive data interoperability with widely-used Autodesk design software: the AutoCAD®, Autodesk® Revit®, and Autodesk® Inventor® software product families, so that you can spend more time creating and less time tracking down data.

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Explore Design Concepts

Create unique organic forms, generate and control architectural form procedurally with scripts, and explore your concepts’ impact early in the design process.

The freedom to experiment during the conceptual stage enables you to more quickly explore design alternatives and gain a better understanding of the impact of your ideas earlier on. 3ds Max Design software offers a powerful modeling toolset that complements the BIM workflow during conceptualization. The software enables you to more freely create and manipulate complex organic shapes and drive geometry procedurally in an iterative manner via built-in, rules-based modifications and constraints. You can also develop your own rules with the Modifier Stack in 3ds Max Design.

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Validate Design Concepts

Put your design in context, so you and your clients can better
understand its impact.

3ds Max Design 2011 delivers simplified interoperability with the Revit 2011 and AutoCAD 2011 software product families, helping to facilitate nondestructive visualization workflows. 3ds Max Design allows you to better visualize your project in context—which is crucial to making informed design decisions. Using the software’s Exposure™ technology for helping simulate and analyze sun, sky, and artificial lighting, you can even more accurately visualize how light will interact with your building. The
ability to evaluate light intensities in designs may also facilitate the evaluation of indoor environmental quality for LEED® EQ 8.1 certification.

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Communicate Design Concepts

Help customers make crucial decisions during design reviews and
gain valuable buy-in at every stage.

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3ds Max Design helps you tell the story of your design —throughout the design process—to both colleagues and clients. Communicate a fuller scope of your creative
vision by bringing AutoCAD® or Autodesk® Revit® Architecture design data into 3ds Max Design and adding organic elements (drapes, bedding, sofas, towels), real
or stylized characters, props, and lighting. Using 3ds Max Design animation and visual effects tools, you can better communicate information quickly, compellingly, and persuasively

Your Advantage

Autodesk 3ds Max Design

Smart Data Workflows Save time, better manage resources, and deliver higherprecision
results with new intelligent workflows for handling data from numerous sources with 3ds Max Design . The  FBX File Link enables 3ds Max Design to receive and manage upstream design changes from Revit Architecture. This more intelligent handling
of data helps reduce rework of visualizations when original designs are revised and refined, supporting nonlinear decision-making processes and facilitating collaborative,
iterative workflows. The new Autodesk Materials Library helps simplify material data exchange with the AutoCAD and Revit families of software, while a new SKP importer
provides higher-fidelity files from Google® SketchUp™ sketching software.
Refine Your Design
Productivity enhancements in 3ds Max Design 2011 mean more time to iterate on your design, enabling you to be more creative and produce higher-quality results. Expanded
Graphite and Viewport Canvas toolsets deliver intuitive new brush-based interfaces for 2D/3D painting, texture editing, and object placement, while a new in-context
direct manipulation UI helps make polygon modeling faster. Also, the enhanced ability to view most 3ds Max texture maps and materials in the viewport means you
can make interactive decisions in a higher-fidelity context, helping to reduce errors and save time. And, for projects where collaboration is critical, a significantly enhanced
workflow with Containers enables multiple team members to work in parallel, making tight deadlines less of a challenge. Higher-Quality Presentations in Less Time
Throughout the design process, you need to present your evolving design to internal and external stakeholders— and the way you do that can make the difference between
winning business and walking away empty-handed. 3ds Max Design  brings new tools that help you to create more compelling presentations even when time is at a premium.
An intuitive new node-based material editor, Slate, helps make it easier and faster to create and edit complex material networks, while the innovative Quicksilver hardware
renderer supports advanced lighting effects and can render at fast speeds, even at larger-than-screen resolutions. Enhance rendered passes and incorporate them into live action footage with 3ds Max® Composite functionality— a high-performance, HDR-capable compositor, based on technology from Autodesk® ToxikTM software. And,
with the addition of Save to Previous Release, you can save scene files in a format compatible with the 2010 version.* This enables you to take advantage of the new
features in 3ds Max Design 2011 before your entire studio, pipeline, or client base is ready to upgrade.

see the 3D design Autodesk softwares

Visualization is no longer simply a presentation tool; it is a design tool as well.
—Larry Malcic
Director of Design
HOK London

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مجانا ,تسيير اجهزة الكمبيوتر عن بعد

هل سمعت عن اجهزة التحكم في الكمبيوتر عن بعد؟
هل يحتاج فريقك للعمل على اجهزة كمبيوتر في نفس الوقت؟
هل تريد الوصول لملفاتك على جهازك اينما كنت؟ مشاركتها و ارسالها؟

PC remote

يمكنك من ذلك

 يسمح للمستخدمين الوصول وإدارة أجهزة الكمبيوتر من أي مكان، ما يلزمك هو الاتي اتصال إنترنت نشط وتطبيق ريموت بس المثبت في جهازك  .

باستخدامريموت بس، يمكن للمستخدمين دعوة شركائهم للتعاون، ونقل الملفات، وطباعة المستندات عن بعد باستخدام الطابعات المحلية وأكثر من ذلك

جهاز كمبيوتر عن بعد توفر الميزات التالية

منصة مستقلة

يمكنك الوصول إلى جهاز الكمبيوتر البعيد من جهاز كمبيوتر / ماك، حتى من أجهزة إفون / إيباد أو أندرويد.

الأمان

تلس v 1.2 / إس-256 لتشفير البيانات بين كمبيوتر بعيد وجهاز كمبيوتر محلي. المفتاح الشخصي، مجموعة كلمة مرور فريدة لكل جهاز كمبيوتر، بمثابة طبقة إضافية من الحماية ل ريموتيك.

القابلة للتطوير

أضف أجهزة الكمبيوتر ، بناء على احتياجاتك، بدون متطلبات إضافية من الأجهزة أو البرامج.

نقل الملف

نقل الملفات والمجلدات، حتى من محركات الأقراص المعينة، بين أجهزة الكمبيوتر.

دردشة

الدردشة مع شريك  يجلس في الطرف البعيد عن طريق إرسال / استقبال الرسائل.

الطباعة عن بعد

طباعة المستندات والصور الموجودة على أجهزة الكمبيوتر البعيدة من أي مكان.

أكثر من…

يمكنك دعوة أحد المنتسبين إلى الدخول إلى جهاز الكمبيوتر مؤقتا للعمل.

تسجيل وحفظ كل ما تبذلونه من جلسات عن بعد في أي مكان المطلوب على جهاز الكمبيوتر المحلي.

تتبع الأنشطة الخاصة بك مع سجلات الوصول عن بعد و سجلات نشاط الويب.

مراحل التسجيل

اختيار البرنامج الذي يناسبك

idrive1

يجب علي تنزيل برنامج ريموت بس

IDRIVE3

تنزيل برنامج ريموت بس

IDRIVE4

ادخال البريد الاكتروني و رمزك السري

idrive5

اخيرا تحصل على غرفة عملياتك

idrive6

للمزيد من المعلومات قم بزيارة الموقع

My experience with RemotePC, New Solution to manage faraway computers

Did you forget your PC and put yourself in an emergency situation?, did you find trouble to manage several PCs in one time? do you need to access and manage faraway computers from anywere?  your business need a Remote PC?

RemotePC allows users to access and manage faraway computers from anywhere, given that the computer being accessed has an active internet connection and RemotePC application installed in it.

By using RemotePC, users can invite their associates to collaborate, transfer files, print documents remotely using local printers and more

Remote PC provide the following features

Platform Independent

Access your remote computer from a PC/Mac, even from iPhone/iPad or Android devices.

Security

TLS v 1.2/AES-256 encryption for transferring the data between a remote computer and a local computer. Personal Key, a unique password set for each computer, acts as an extra layer of protection for RemotePC.

Scalable
Add computers to your plan, based on your needs, without additional hardware or software requirements.
File Transfer
Transfer files and folders, even from mapped drives, between your computers.
Chat
Chat with your partner sitting at the remote end by sending/receiving messages.
Remote Printing
Print documents and images that are on your remote computers from anywhere.
More…
Invite an associate to temporarily access your computer to work.
Record and save all your remote sessions at any desired location on your local computer.
Track your activities with remote access logs and
web activity logs.

Those pictures are from my personal experience:

1 I sign up

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This is my remote screen, I need to install Remote PC

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3 Remote PC installation

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4 Now I enter my email and password

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5 This is my dashboard

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To access to the website and see further informations click here.

 

Is Artificial intelligence a threat?

Maybe you have watched one of those science fiction movies : I, robot,The terminator, etc,

Is the artificial intelligence a threat for human being? let’s read neuroscientist and philosopher Sam Harris point of view:”It’s really a failure to detect a certain kind of danger.I’m going to describe a scenario how the gains we make in artificial intelligence could ultimately destroy us or inspire us to destroy ourselves. ”

The scenario

It’s as though we stand before two doors. Behind door number one, we stop making progress in building intelligent machines. Our computer hardware and software
just stops getting better for some reason. Now take a moment to consider why this might happen. I mean, given how valuable intelligence and automation are, we will continue to improve our technology if we are at all able to. What could stop us from doing this? to prevent us from making improvements in our technology permanently, generation after generation Almost by definition, this is the worst thing that’s ever happened in human history. So the only alternative and this is what lies
behind door number two, is that we continue to improve our intelligent machines year after year after year. At a certain point, we will build machines that are smarter than we are, and once we have machines that are smarter than we are, they will begin to improve themselves. And then we risk what
the mathematician IJ Good called an “intelligence explosion,” that the process could get away from us Now,
this is often caricatured,

And then we risk what the mathematician IJ Good called an “intelligence explosion,” that the process could get away from us Now,


a
s I have here, as a fear that armies of malicious robots will attack us. But that isn’t the most likely scenario.It’s not that our machines will become spontaneously malevolent. The concern is really that we will build machines that are so much more competent than we are that the slightest divergence between their goals and our own could destroy us. Just think about how we relate to ants. We don’t hate them. We don’t go out of our way to harm them. In fact, sometimes
we take pains not to harm them. We step over them on the sidewalk. But whenever their presence seriously conflicts with one of our goals, let’s say when constructing a building  we annihilate them without a qualm. The concern is that we will
one day build machines that, whether they’re conscious or not, could treat us with similar disregard.

Intelligence is a matter of information processing in physical systems

Intelligence is a matter of information processing in physical systems. Actually, this is a little bit more than an assumption, We have already built narrow intelligence into our machines, and many of these machines perform at a level of superhuman intelligence already. And we know that mere matter  can give rise to what is called “general intelligence,” an ability to think flexibly across multiple domains, because our brains have managed it. Right? I mean, there’s just atoms in here,  and as long as we continue
to build systems of atoms that display more and more
intelligent behavior we will eventually, unless we are interrupted, we will eventually
build general intelligence into our machines.

It’s crucial to realize that the rate of progress doesn’t matter, because any progress
is enough to get us into the end zone. We don’t need Moore’s law to continue.
We don’t need exponential progress. We just need to keep going.

The second assumption is that we will keep going. We will continue to improve
our intelligent machines. The train is already out of the station, and there’s no brake to pull.Finally, we don’t stand on a peak of intelligence or anywhere near it, likely.

And this really is the crucial insight. This is what makes our situation so precarious, and this is what makes our intuitions about risk so unreliable.

The intelligence explosion

if we build machines that are more intelligent than we are,they will very likely explore the spectrum of intelligence in ways that we can’t imagine,  and exceed us in ways
that we can’t imagine. And it’s important to recognize tha this is true by virtue of speed alone. Right? So imagine if we just built a superintelligent AI that was no smarter
than your average team of researchers at Stanford or MIT.  Well, electronic circuits
function about a million times faster than biochemical ones, so this machine should think about a million times faster than the minds that built it. So you set it running for a week, and it will perform 20,000 years of human-level intellectual work,  week after week after week. How could we even understand, much less constrain, a mind making this sort of progress?

No safety concerns

The other thing that’s worrying, frankly, is that, imagine the best case scenario. So imagine we hit upon a design of superintelligent AI that has no safety concerns. We have the perfect design the first time around. It’s as though we’ve been handed an oracle  that behaves exactly as intended. Well, this machine would be
the perfect labor-saving device. It can design the machine that can build the machine that can do any physical work, powered by sunlight, more or less for the cost of raw materials.  So we’re talking about the end of human drudgery. We’re also talking about the end of most intellectual work. So what would apes like ourselves do in this circumstance? Well, we’d be free to play Frisbee and give each other massages.  Add some LSD and some questionable wardrobe choices, and the whole world could be like Burning Man.

But  what would happen under our current economic and political order? It seems likely that we would witness a level of wealth inequality and unemployment that we have never seen before. Absent a willingness to immediately put this new wealth to the service of all humanity, a few trillionaires could grace the covers of our business magazines while the rest of the world would be free to starve.  And what would the Russians or the Chinese do if they heard that some company in Silicon Valley was about to deploy a superintelligent AI? This machine would be capable of waging war, whether terrestrial or cyber, with unprecedented power. This is a winner-take-all scenario. To be six months ahead of the competition here is to be 500,000 years ahead, at a minimum. So it seems that even mere rumors of this kind of breakthrough could cause our species to go berserk.

we have no idea how long it will take us to create the conditions to do that safely. 

Time’s over….?

One of the most frightening things, at this moment are the kinds of things that AI researchers say when they want to be reassuring And the most common reason we’re told not to worry is time. This is all a long way off, don’t you know. This is probably 50 or 100 years away.  One researcher has said, “Worrying about AI safety is like worrying
about overpopulation on Mars.” This is the Silicon Valley version of “don’t worry your
pretty little head about it.” No one seems to notice that referencing the time horizon is a total non sequitur.If intelligence is just a matter
of information processing, and we continue to improve our machines, we will produce
some form of superintelligence. And we have no idea how long it will take us to create the conditions to do that safely.  And if you haven’t noticed, 50 years is not what it used to be.This is 50 years in months.

This is how long we’ve had the iPhone. Fifty years is not that much time to meet one of the greatest challenges our species will ever face. Once again, we seem to be failing
to have an appropriate emotional response to what we have every reason to believe is coming. The computer scientist Stuart Russell has a nice analogy here.  He said, imagine that we received a message from an alien civilization, which read: “People of Earth, we will arrive on your planet in 50 years. Get ready.”

 Machines values’s?

Another reason we’re told not to worry is that these machines can’t help but share our values because they will be literally extensions of ourselves They’ll be grafted onto our brains,  and we’ll essentially become their limbic systems. Now take a moment to consider that the safest and only prudent path forward, is to implant this technology
directly into our brains. Now, this may in fact be the safest and only prudent path forward, but usually one’s safety concerns about a technology  have to be pretty much worked out before you stick it inside your head. The deeper problem is that building superintelligent AI on its own seems likely to be easier  than building superintelligent AI and having the completed neuroscience that allows us to seamlessly integrate our minds with it. And given that the companies and governments doing this work are likely to perceive themselves as being in a race against all others, given that to win this race
is to win the world, provided you don’t destroy it in the next moment,

Conclusion

I think we need something like a Manhattan Project on the topic of artificial intelligence.  Not to build it, because I think we’ll inevitably do that, but to understand how to avoid an arms race and to build it in a way that is aligned with our interests.

 

Discover 3D design

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Inspired from Sam Harris TED talks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How Augmented reality could change surgery?

Context

There are two major facts:

  1. 70%  of the world’s population (5 billions people) lack access to safe surgery care.
  2. The information age: The fourth epoch of technological advancement.

So How number 2 will help to diminish number 1 intensity ?

The information age

According to the theories of human social development, we’re now living through the fourth epoch of technological advancement: the Information Age.

Connectivity through digital technology is a modern miracle, that has broken down barriers of time and space which separate people,and it’s created a condition for an age where information, ideas can be shared freely ( at a certain degree!)

But are these great accomplishments in digital technology really the endgame
in terms of what can be achieved?

WHO’s Lancet Commission

According to the WHO’s Lancet Commission,  five billion people around the world lack access to safe surgical care,they can’t even access simple surgical procedures as and when they need them.

Sierra Leone

It’s a country of six million people, where a recent study showed that there are only 10 qualified surgeons, That’s one surgeon for every 600,000 people.

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If there’s a patient that needs an operation, and there isn’t a surgeon available,you’re left with some really difficult choices: to wait, to travel, or not to have an operation at all.

Today solution

digital communications technology has the power to do so much more than just to allow us to shop online, to connect through social media platforms and to stay up to date. It has the power to help us solve some of the key issues that we face, like lack of access to vital surgical services

The history of surgery is filled with breakthroughs, in how science and technology
was able to help the surgeons of the day face their greatest challenges.If we go back several hundred years,an understanding of microbiology led to the development
of antiseptic techniques,which played a big role in making sure patients were able
to stay alive postsurgery.

Fast-forward a few hundred years, we developed keyhole or arthroscopic surgery which combines video technology and precision instruments to make surgery less invasive.

More recently robotic surgery has emerged, what robotics brings to surgery
is much like modern automated machinery: ultraprecision! the ability to carry out procedures at the tiniest scales, with a degree of accuracy that even surpasses the human hand. But robotic surgery also introduced something else to surgery: the idea that a surgeon doesn’t actually have to be standing at the patient’s bedside to deliver care, that he could be looking at a screen and instructing a robot through a computer. This is called remote surgery.

But,for sure,  Not every one could bring a million-dollar robot to provide remote surgery, so , a team of designers, engineers and surgers  find solutions that solve these answers
in a cost-effective and scalable way, all you needed was a phone, a tablet, or a computer, an internet connection, a confident colleague on the ground, and one magic ingredient: an augmented reality collaboration software (proximie software).

Using this augmented reality collaboration software,an expert surgeon
can now virtually transport himself into any clinical setting simply by using his phone
or tablet or computer,and he can visually and practically interact in an operation from start to finish, guiding and mentoring a local doctor through the procedure step by step.

Let see those pictures from a keyhole surgery of the knee,where a surgey doctor standing with her laptop, a simple webcam and the augmented reality collaboration software.

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According to Nadine Hachach-Haram, a surgery doctor “We’re so used to using digital technology to communicate through voice and text and video, but augmented reality
can do something so much deeper.It allows two people to virtually interact in a way that mimics
how they would collaborate in person. Being able to show someone what you want to do, to illustrate and demonstrate and gesture, is so much more powerful than just telling them. And it can make for such a great learning tool, because we learn better through direct experience.”

 Dr. Ghassan Abu-Sitta, Head of Plastic Surgery at the American University of Beirut Medical Center has  used the software to lead two operations in the Gaza from Beirut.
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Conclusion

The beauty is that it breaks boundaries.It transcends all technological difficulties. It connects people. It democratizes access.Wi-Fi and mobile technology
are growing rapidly, and they should play a role in boosting surgical provision.
Of course, it still got a long way before we can solve the problem of getting surgery to five billion people, and unfortunately, some people still don’t have access to internet.

Discover 3D design

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Inspired from Ted talks  Nadine Hachach-Haram

 

 

 

 

Improve your negociation skills

The leader must motivate the team members, clarify difficult issues and orchestrate everyone’s efforts. This means exploring alternatives, pushing boundaries, keeping the whole team involved and moving the group toward consensus.

The presented post will explain relevant aspects of moderation, argumentation, negotiation and working group in the collaborative distributed design teams.
you will learn to:

  • How to moderate a project meeting
  • How to argue/sustain/explain a solution or idea
  • How to negociate an idea or solution

Moderation
Moderation is a normal, no conflict way of conduct a team meeting.
The leader will have to make tough judgment calls when the group is faced with difficult trade-offs (moderation process with the design team). The leader must guide the creative process in such a way that the finished work is strategically sound and of the highest possible quality. In a short period of time, good ideas must be developed and then executed flawlessly.
The team leader serves as the primary client contact for strategic and creative issues (moderation process with clients). She/he is responsible for managing client expectations over the course of the project and may often have to push back and persuade.
The team leader must also be sensitive to the needs and goals of individual team members (moderation process with young people in a team).
-A good team leader will serve as a mentor, encouraging others to stretch creatively and helping them to develop their potential.
-In the case of staff members, this includes nurturing their personal growth over the course of multiple projects (career development).
-To be a mentor, the team leader must have credibility.
She/he must bring to the position proven ability and relevant industry experience. Leaders as moderators must establish and maintain mutual respect. This requires honesty, trust and a genuine and consistent emphasis on us/we/our.
Effective team leaders tend to have a decentralized approach to authority, allowing individuals to work
independently on tasks, then bring their work back to the group for evaluation and integration through moderation.
This moves most projects forward through a cycle of rapid prototyping and incremental changes.
Lastly, the team leader must see to it that excitement and fun do not drain away from the work and sometime are efficient tools in the moderation process. Fun is powerful motivator! It puts things into new contexts and leads to fresh ideas.

Fun is powerful motivator! It puts things into new contexts and leads to fresh ideas.

Every  firm faces a paradox here. What is the right balance between freedom and discipline? True innovation requires creative risk. It involves experimentation and making mistakes. At the same time, however,  teams must be provided with just the right amount of structure. They must take a mature and responsible approach to budgets and
schedules. In this latter respect, the team leader can be greatly assisted by a capable project manager.

Team leader vs. project manager!

The role of the project manager is a very important one. Most design as example, teams find it indispensable to have someone specifically charged with the coordination of logistics. This person must have a good understanding of the creative and production processes involved, but their role on the team is not that of a designer. When a project is first pitched, the project manager may assist in developing estimates and timelines and identifying potential risks. Once a project is active, his or her primary responsibility is to support the team by taking care of a range of administrative tasks.
The project manager arranges any necessary meetings, distributes updated information, monitors budgets and deadlines and documents the progress of each assignment.

Moderator behavior

The moderator’s primary responsibility is to prevent the group from wasting
time. For this reason, she will follow a program of milestones to prevent the
group from getting stuck in a certain phase.
That is way it is very important to know what moderator is allow and in not
allow to do.

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The moderator is a person with the moral and professional authority that assume the role to moderate the communication in a specific group, by facilitating and stimulating the data, information and knowledge exchange and to orient it in the desired direction for attending a specific objective, but also, for diminish/eliminate communications’ conflicts.
Based on this preliminary definition there are presented the abilities needed
for becoming a good moderator.
Sometime is better to see the moderator in a team as a facilitator.
From Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facilitator) a facilitator is
someone who helps a group of people understand their common objectives and
assists them to plan to achieve them without taking a particular position in the
discussion. The facilitator will try to assist the group in achieving a consensus
on any disagreements that preexist or emerge in the meeting so that it has a
strong basis for future action. The role has been likened to that of a midwife
who assists in the process of birth but is not the producer of the end result.

Moderator profile

A moderator must have the following skills:

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Genral framework of argumentation

According to the Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argumentation_theory) the argumentation theory , or argumentation, embraces the arts and sciences of civil debate, dialogue, conversation, and persuasion; studying rules of inference, logic, and procedural rules in both artificial and real world settings. Argumentation is concerned primarily with reaching conclusions through logical reasoning, that is, claims based on premises.

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For better understanding the main tools used in the argumentation tools there
can be consulted:
-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_demonstration – about some demonstration examples, some famous scientific demonstrations;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive_reasoning – more information
regarding the induction or inductive reasoning or inductive logic.

Demonstration rules

Logical Math theory applied in the demonstration procedure:
True → True
False → False

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What will be if the moderation and argumentation can not avoid conflict?!

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Negociation process

Negotiation is an interactive process between two or more parties seeking to
find common ground on an issue or issues of mutual interest or dispute where
the involved parties seek to make or find a mutually acceptable agreement that
will be honoured by all the parties concerned.

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The negotiation process context is define using the interrogative method.
-In an educative environment there can be analyze the answers of different
questions using collaborative, distributive design process examples.
-Based on this interrogative method there can be analyze different
collaborative engineering scenario!
The basic idea is that negotiation should not be reduced to a mere give-andtake/
reject process. Instead it should be viewed as an opportunity for the
participants to argue about their respective positions and expectations and
achieve mutually beneficial agreements. To ensure that negotiation is efficient
and moving toward a right direction, negociators should do more than simply
“agree” or “reject” a proposal. They must provide “arguments” for others to
understand “what do you want” and “why.”

Negociators should do more than simply
“agree” or “reject” a proposal. They must provide “arguments” for others to
understand “what do you want” and “why.”

Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement

 

When discussing a BATNA (Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement) it is probably appropriate to start out by saying that it is not the so called bottom
line that negotiators conceptualize to protect themselves against concluding agreements where they give too much or receive too little.
A bottom line denotes the worst possible outcome that could be accepted, and is therefore intended to act as a barrier beyond which the negotiation may not
extend. It is a defense against the pressure and temptation that is often exerted on members of a party to agree to a deal that is self defeating. Although bottom
lines undoubtedly do serve a purpose, they unfortunately create rigidity and inflexibility, inhibit creativity and innovation, and reduce the incentive to seek
tailor-made solutions that reconcile differences.
By contrast, a BATNA does not concern what should be achieved, but what the course of action should be if an agreement y , , g is not reached within a certain time.
As the standard against which an agreement is measured, it prevents a negotiator from accepting an agreement that is too unfavorable or not in its best interests,
as it knows of a better option outside the negotiation.
By virtue of the fact that it concerns what the alternative to a negotiated agreement would be, it allows far greater flexibility and room for innovation than is the
case with a predetermined bottom line. The better a negotiator’s BATNA, the greater that negotiator’s power, given the attractive alternative that negotiator
could resort to if an acceptable agreement is not reached.
When developing a BATNA, a negotiator should:
•Brainstorm a list of alternatives that could be considered if the negotiation failed to deliver a favorable agreement:
•Select the most promising alternatives and develop them into practical and attainable alternatives: and
•Identify the most beneficial alternative to be kept in reserve as a fall-back during the negotiation.
Although it would be ludicrous to enter a negotiation with a preconceived decision to not conclude the negotiation, having a viable BATNA is an essential
insurance policy. A well thought through, clearly defined BATNA has the advantage that it makes it possible for the negotiator to break off the negotiation if it
becomes clear that a beneficial outcome is not achievable, as the negotiator would then know what the consequences would be should the negotiation fail. This
‘willingness’ of negotiator to break off a negotiation should it become necessary, permits the negotiator to adopt a more firm and forceful stance when
presenting ideas and interests as the basis for an agreement.
The question as to whether a BATNA should be disclosed to the other party/ parties depends on the strength/attractiveness of the BATNA. Should a negotiator
have a strong BATNA, it may be beneficial to reveal it, as this would prevent the other party/ parties from acting as if a good alternative does not exist. Where
a party, however, has a weak BATNA, non-disclosure may be the preferred approach, as this may, especially where the other party is showing signs of overestimating
its opponents BATNA, prove to be a bonus that should not be squandered through disclosure.
The more a negotiator knows about the alternatives available to the other party/ parties, the better that negotiator is able to prepare for a negotiation. Should a
negotiator before a negotiation have access to information that the other party is over-estimating its BATNA such information could very effectively be used to
lower its negotiation expectations.
Where both parties to a negotiation have a strong BATNA, negotiation would seem rather meaningless, as there would be very little incentive to come to an
agreement. In such cases the parties should rather look elsewhere to pursue their business.
When a party to a negotiation fails to explore its BATNA, it finds itself in a very insecure situation, and is exposed to:
•Strong inner pressure to reach an agreement, as it is unaware of what would happen if the negotiation fails:
•Over-optimism about proposed agreements, often resulting in the associated costs not being fully appreciated:
•The danger of becoming committed to reaching an agreement, as it is then unaware of alternatives outside the negotiation, and therefore would be inclined to
be pessimistic about its prospects if the negotiation fails: and
•The vagaries of the law of agreement, which holds that when persons agree to something this is entirely dependent on the attractiveness of the available
alternatives.

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Reference

Ecqa

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moderation

ressources on negotiation:

Negotiation definitions and characteristics for the design process – relevant references
Y. Jin, M. Geslin, S.C-Y. Lu, Impact of Argumentative Negotiation on Collaborative
Jianzhi Li, Hong-Chao Zhang, Asymmetric Negotiation Based Collaborative Product Design for Component
Reuse in Disparate Products, Computers & Industrial Engineering,
Noel, F., A Product – Process – Organization Integrative Model to Support Collaborative Design, CIRP – LCE

Improve your communication skills

This post will help you to :

  • Understand types of communication skills
  • communicate with experts from different fields
  • know how to monitor communication transmission
  • know to recognize and avoid /diminish misunderstanding in communication

Individuals have various preferences for both communicating with others
and interpreting the communications from others. Numerous models have
been developed which describe how to recognize an individual’s preferred
style of communicating and what strategy to use in communicating most
effectively with them.
Do you know how your communication style is perceived? To progress in
your career it is vital that you communicate in an assertive way.
It is important to understand how your communication style is interpreted by
others to avoid miscommunication and misunderstandings. The goal is
communicate with assertion and avoid an aggressive, passive-aggressive or
passive style of communication.
Use the following table to analyze you communication style over all or to
evaluate a particular exchange you’ve had to see how you can improve on
your communication style.

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communication table

we both matter, I think we are equal “assertive communication”

Communication personnalities

The following are examples of a couple of Communication personalities models – check for some examples and debate each aspects of the communication process; sustain your affirmations with examples.
Different Personality Types:
Expresser, Driver, Relater & Analytical – to be recognize and improve communication process.
The variable of analyze are:
•How to Recognize Each,
•What They Ask,
•Dislikes,
•Reacts to,
•Improves with,
•Must be Allowed to,
•For Best Results.

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communication personnalities
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key factors

Communication with experts from different fields

Effective communication is an essential skill that is used daily and is related
to success in all facets of life.
Communication with experts from different fields of sciences – in design
teams represents a big challenge for each member involved in the team. It is
recognized as a interdisciplinary approach of research and the solution for
an effective communication is that each specialist to know and understand
the basic knowledge from the others. So, a common knowledge pool is
established and this will create the basic for understating one each other.

Communication process monitoring, by elements:
1. Monitoring the information source – clear and understandable message,
information presentation public/target oriented;
2. Transmitter – monitor the whole message transmition through the
channel. The transmiter has to be design to accept all kind of messages
used by the design actors (drawing, text, presentations, results simulation
files etc.).
3. Channel – monitor the process communication through the channel is
linked with: monitor the message sending process and the noise sources
intervention (avoiding them)
10
4. Receiver – monitor the reception and the perseption of the transmited
message;
5. Destination – monitor the decision process and the implementation
process of the used, transmited information.
Noise is consider everything that can disrupt the communication process.

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How to prepare a presentation?

When prepare a presentation you have to focus on the audiance interests:
Designers – focus on engineering solutions, product functions realization
Manufacturing engineers – focus on product manufacturability
Logistics engineers – focus on suppliers selection, product distribution
Marketing people – focus on the product benefits, satisfaction for clients,
customers (product, price, placement and publicity policies). The product
functions have to be linked with a customer need satisfaction
End-of-life specialist – focus on the EOF product behavior.
The product impact on the environment has to be a subject that is a general
focus of all actors!

When the screen lights up with a slide filled with dense text and highly
detailed tables, charts, and graphs, the focus of the audience immediately,
and involuntarily, goes to the graphics, and they start to read. When they
start reading, they stop listening. The graphics then become the center of
attention and the presenter becomes subordinate to the slide show. This
problem is compounded as the presenter becomes a reader, too. The results
are a failure to connect, a failure to communicate, and most likely, a failure
to persuade.
To make all of the above happen, we need the guiding principles. These
principles are:
Presenter Focus and Less Is More – In addition, there is a third vital element
in the equation: Perception Psychology, the audience and how they take in
what they see.
Finally, you can turn to graphics to help communicate your flow.Welldesigned
graphics not only convey information clearly and attractively, they
also help establish the connections among ideas by Graphic Continuity.
Again, the panoramic view offers an excellent perspective on the flow of
your innovation presentation.

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reference: ecqa.

See what you can buy with one dollar at Gearbest

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Free useful tools for project and data management

If you need to plan meetings, to use cloud storage, backup your data, here’s a list of free useful tools that help you to organize your work!

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  • Video confercing : www.ivci.com/services/video-conferencing/
  • Free back up and sync ( 5GB free) : http://www.idrive.com/p=alitechno, please if you choose to sign up for Idrive, confirm that you have been directed by alitechno.

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  • Explore the globe: https://www.google.com/earth/

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Autodesk promotions & products price’s under 5 euro

Autodesk offers a promotion of 20 % till 16 January 2018, this promotion concerns the following products:

Autocad is a well known software for 3D design , simulation and analysis , read more about 3D design at why engineering use 3D model

Revit LT Suite  is a software for building information modeling, it provides tools to plan, design, construct, and manage buildings and infrastructure as shown bellow:

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visit Autodesk to see more about the promotion.

AutoCAD - mobile app Premium  AutoCAD – mobile app Premium, Price’s 5 euro.

 

English Idioms-شرح باللغة العربية

و هي جمل مقابلة للاستعارة في اللغة العربية Idiomsفيما يلي شرح لمجموعة من

A perfect storm

The worst possible situation.

!هذه الاستعارة يعنى بها اسوا الاحتمالات التي يمكن ان تقع.

 استعملت هذه الاستعارة كعنوان لفيلم . في هذا الفيلم مات البطل نتيجة تعرض سفينته لعاصفة بحرية مع حدوث مجموعة من الظروف التي صعبت عملية الانقاذ

Dig your own grave

 Dig your own grave means to do something detrimental to yourself

ىحفر قبره بيده، نفس المعنى بالتعبير العربي، ان تفعل شيئا او تخوض مغامرة قد تكلفك الكثير!

 

Cut to the chase

It means get to the point!

ان تقول هذه العبارة لشخص تعني انك تطلب منه الدخول مباشرة في الموضوع، لكنك لا يمكن تستعمل هذه العبارة مع الجميع،مثلا من غير اللائق ان تقولها لاستاذ او شخص أكبر منك

Chase تعني المطاردة

Cut somebody some slack

Slack means not tight, loose, for instance Theses ropes are too slack

When you are criticising somebody , he may tell you : cut me some slack! which means don’t be so critical!

كان سيدنا معاوية يقول، ولو أن بيني وبين الناس شعرة ما انقطعت، كانوا إذا مدّوها أرخيتها، وإذا أرخوها مددتها”.

!مثلنا الانجليزي لهذا اليوم معناه لا تشدد كثيرا في النقد او الانتقاد،

. تعني مشدود، المعنى الحرفي  للمثل هو ارخ الحبل قليلا slack

Reivent the wheel

عدم اختراع العجلة، يقصد به شيء او طريقة معروفة مسبقا لا داعي لاعادة صياغتها من جديد

Miss the boat

المعنى الحرفي لقد فوت السفينة، الاستعارة لها نفس معنى فاتك القطار!مثلا عندما تصل الى درس و تجده قد انتهى و المدرس انصرف، في هذه الحالة وصلت متأخرا او بتعبير اخر فاتك القطار

واضح انه لم يفتهم القطار، و لربما قطار من نوع اخر هو ما فاتهم

Pull yourself  together

It means calm down

معنى الاستعارة: اهدأ،

,المعنى الحرفي قريب من المقولة المصرية : لم نفسك،

او في اللهجة المغربية: اجمع بعضك

pull is the opposite of push

Actions speak louder than words

It means that an action of a person is more significant and convincing than its speaches.

هناك بيت شعري يقول، السيف أصدق انباء من الكتب،هذا المعنى يتماشى مع معنى المقولة باللغة الانجليزية، فالمعنى الحرفي هو أن الافعال تتكلم بصوت اعلى من الافعال، نحن نعلم ان الافعال لا تتكلم، لكنها استعارة للقول ان افعال الانسان تعكس ما يفكر به و نواياه اكثر مما تفعل أقواله.

Ball is in your court

 When you say it to somebody it means that you tell him that it his turn to make next move or take next decision.

الكرة في ملعب فلان، عندما تقول هذه العبارة لشخص فهذا لا يعني انه يلعب الكرة ، لكن المعنى انك تقول له انه دوره ليتخذ القرار او يقوم بالخطوة القادمة

 Costs an arm and a leg

When something is very expensive, you say it costs me an arm and a leg!

للتعبير عن شيء غال جدا

Cross that bridge when you come to it

It means that you have to deal with a problem when it hapens not before

لا تفكر بالمشاكل و الامور التي لم تحدث بعد، بل انتظر حتى تحدث فربما لا تقع ابدا

Cry over spilt milk 

لا تبك على اللبن المسكوب، ان انكسر كاس الحليب فلا معنى ان تبكي و تحزن عليه لان ذلك لن يعيده، و هذه العبارة تعني البكاء على شيء وقع في الماضي، و لن يتغير.

:و كما قيل ابان سقوط الاندلس لملك من المماليك

لا تبك مثل النساء على ملك لم تحفظه مثل الرجال

Do not judge a book by its cover

لا تحكم على الكتاب من غلافه،لدينا مثل عربي يقابله في المعنى: المظاهر خداعة!،

 هذا المثل يدعو لعدم التسرع في اطلاق الاحكام،و لدينا رواية تنسب لسيدنا عمرابن الخطاب أنه قال لرجل : لست أعرفك ولا يضرك أن لا أعرفك فأت بمن يعرفك . فقال رجلٌ من القوم : أنا أعرفه . فقال بأي شيء تعرفه ؟ قال : بالعدالة والفضل . قال : فهو جارك الأدنى الذي تعرف ليله ونهاره ومدخله ومخرجه ؟ قال : لا . قال : فمعاملك في الدينار والدرهم اللذين يستدل بهما على الورع ؟ قال : لا . قال : فرفيقك في السفر الذي يستدل به على مكارم الأخلاق ؟ قال : لا . 

.قال : لست تعرفه . ثم قال للرجل : ائت بمن يعرفك

.

Do not judge a book by its cover

The Black Sheep      

  

.حرفيا تعني الخروف الاسود، لكن العبارة تستعمل للتعبير عن الشخص المنبوذ في مجموعة ما  

The black sheep

Meaning is member of a family or group who is 

regarded as a disgrace to them

الشخص المنبوذ!

Taste of your own medecine

 معناه تذوق مما قدمت يداك، هناك مثل عربي قريب من هذا المعنى: من حفر حفرة لاخيه وقع فيها،مثلا شخص يفرح بصنع المقالب للناس و اخافتهم،فيوما ما قرر أحد صحابه ان يخيفه جدا، ثم قال له

Taste of your own medecine!

Sit on the fence

.الوقوف بحيادية دون اتخاذ أي موقف أو الانحياز لاي جهة

To be at the end of one’s rope, also you can say

  • (to) come to the end of one’s rope
  • (to) reach the end of one’s rope

المعنى أن الشخص وصل نهايته في الصبر والاحتمال و لم يعد يحتمل أكثر,نقول فلان عيل صبره ،كما قال الشاعر

قلت لها يا أسما عيل صبري

قالت يا اسماعيل صبرا

Rope meaning:حبل مفتول

To be at the one’s rope

A watched pot never boils

,نكاية أن الانتظار يطيل الاحساس بالوقت .المعنى الحرفي هو أن القدر التي تراقبه لا يغلي

Don’t be an airhead

other way to say don’t be stupid!

Backhanded compliment

:طريقة مغلفة بالمدح لكن القصد منها هو الذم مثلا

you look really good from far away!

EAGLE - Standard 2 year

Want to learn about 3d rapid prototyping, come here!

 

Rapid prototyping is a very useful tool that helps designer to evaluate the product in the earlier stages, in fact,  the physical models are made during all stages of product development (conception stage, geometry modelling, design optimisation, manufacturing and assembly design) wereas, the traditional prototyping process comes in the end stage of product development after all arrangements concerning product conception, variant choice and design analyses.

What are the main technologies that allow to have rapid prototyps?  how the model is produced? and where to rapid prototyping is applied?

Technologies of prototype fabrication

Number of techniques for automatic fabrication of physical objects (parts, assemblies, prototypes) basing directly on data from 3D CAD systems for instance Autocad and Maya from Autodesk, Corelcad and so on, or other data sources containing 3D geometry as example geometric reverse engineering technologies.

Here’s the operations flow  diagram for model building in Rapid Prototyping system:

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The model is produced layer after layer, where the layer are formed by horizontal crosssections of computer model

Standard Triangulated Language (STL) (Stereo Lithography files)

File format for data transfer from CAD to Rapid Prototyping Model surface in STL file is approximated by means of triangles. Object description consists of planar triangles vertex coordinates and normal vector index that shows outside direction of model

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Representation of solid by planar triangles and normal vectors
• Other CAD system elements (points, lines, layers, attributes, model topology) are ignored by data export to STL file
• Reproduction accuracy must be specified during file export command
• Direct data export by the most of CAD system and acceptance as a standard by all RP systems
• Data redundancy and the part topology information
• Efficient computer procedures for solid cross-section determination

Examples of Rapid Prototyping Technologies

– Stereolithography (SLA)

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– Selected Laser Sinterink

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– Laminated Object Manufacturing

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– Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

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– Ballistic Particle Manufacturing (BPM)

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– 3D Printing

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Cycle of model fabrication by 3D printing

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Here bellow some application of Rapid Prototyping models:
Visualisation and verification of spatial forms
Iterative design optimisation
Marketing tests of potential customers preferences
Tool for communication and designers collaboration
Testing of parts fitting and functional tests
Models for preparing foundry forms
Producing tools for manufacturing small series of plastics parts

 

Examples of RP parts

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Comparison of chosen RP systems

According the the cost and quality comparison between the differents RP systems, the 3D printing is the best. ( read more about by clicking here)

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Rapid Prototyping Advantages

• Increase visualization capability during the early phases of design
• Fabrication of complex designs and geometries
• Time savings – we can fabricate parts prototypes in one or two days
• Cost savings – comparatively with standard technologies
• Detecting design errors before the manufacture of tooling
• Models for fast tooling creation to manufacture series of physical
prototypes

Discover 3D design

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References

.ecqa
• Gebhardt Andreas: Rapid Prototyping, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich
2003
• Venuvinod Patri K. , Ma Weiyin: Rapid prototyping: laser-based and
other technologies, Springer, 2004
• Kamrani Ali K., Nasr Emad Abouel: Rapid prototyping: theory and
practice, Birkhäuser, 2006
Internet resources
http://www.eod.gvsu.edu/eod/manufactl
http://rpids.csc.tntech.edu/
http://home.utah.edu/~asn8200/rapid.html

Corel CAD 2018 VS AutoCAD 2018

Corel, a software company has released his last CorelCAD version (2018),  2D and 3D Computer aided design software.

CorelCAD, developped by ARES has provided compatibility with iOS, Corelcad comes with a set of enhacement and new features includes:

  • Enhancement of 3D solid modeling editing
  • New Helix tool that allows users to create 2D spirals and 3D helixes
  • New AutoCAD DWG format Support

Autocad 2018, an Autodesk software, comes with new features and enhancement as example readAutocad introduced for Mac

Which one is the best to use?

Autocad 2018 VS Corel CAD 2018

Let’s compare thoses two softwares in order to see when and where use each one.

Domains covered

The main domains covered are almost the same for both of the two softwares such as construction and engineering, with common features on architectural, structural, mechanical and general design and documentation,but there are some domains where Autocad is used whereas Corelcad is not, such as automotive and Education. Thus, CorelCAD is more suitable for civil and structural engineers, industrial designers,small business, and general CAD hobbyists.

Autocad advantages

Autocad provides electrical application simulation and development while corelcad doesn’t.

Autocad provides  facilities such as cost estimation, animation and rendering and simulation based analysis while  corelcad doesn’t.

Autocad provide Free students version ( read how to download free Autocad 2018) and educational licenses, Whereas corelcad made an education Benefit from 75% off commercial software pricing.

Pricing

Corelcad 2018 is a one time cost which is US$699.00

Autocad 2018 price is $1,470.00 /year

Here are further thechnical comparison from computeraideddesignguide.com

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features of AutoCAD vs CorelCAD

 

 

This comparison table help to decide when one should use CorelCAD vs AutoCAD.

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Click here to access to corelCAD website VS Click here to acces to Autodesk website

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Virtual reality VS augmented reality

Virtual reality is more than video and Xbox games, its used are over differents domains especially in design.( if you want to know more read What do you need to know about virtual reality?

What’s augmented reality and what’s the difference between augmented and virual reality?

Augmented VS Virtual Reality

Augmented reality = Virtual reality + reality

The augmented reality and virtual reality use both the same thechnologies, in contrast of virtual reality,the Augmented reality use real environment while VR use a simulated one.

The use of Virtual and Augmented Reality technologies in product lifecycle engineering

The lifecycle engineering phases are as follow( read more about product lifecycle):

  • Design ( Concept)
  • Product planning
  • Ideal concept
  • Product testing
  • Manufacturing
  • Product distribution
  • Use
  • End of use

The picture bellow show how both VR and AR are used during theses phases:

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Augmented VS Virtual reality

VR Thechnologies basics

Three essential basics are the following

  • 3D – stereoscopic computer graphics
  • Immersion effect – user feels to be a part of virtual scene
  • Interaction – real time control of virtual object.

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Application Area

Both of AR and VR are used in differents area, from engineering point of view ,its used areas including:

  • Design
  • Product configuration
  • Process simulation
  • Object visualization
  • Scientific visualization
  • Training, Education

Main steps for the creation of VR application

The main steps are:

Geometry
import
Changes of object
visual parameters
Behavior
programming
Visualization
and distribution

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Applications of VR systems in work stand design

VR application as an effective tool in work stand design with
visualization and variant support
• Applications with simulation of motions, actions and working cycles of
the appliances
• Experiments and simulations of workplaces service, analyses of
designed workplace ergonomics before making the real prototype

Model that connects a real and virtual elements, mixed mock-up, in second stage of appliances design process.

Communication between the user and the VR system

The communication is established by several means , here’s an example:

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Conclusion

Virtual Reality and augmented are effective tool in work stand design with visualization and variant support for example:
• Training in Virtual Environment gives new, exiting and costs effective ways of learning
• Challenges for the future include: automated procedures
for model preparation, data exchange protocols (CADVR- Learning System integration), natural interfaces, force feedback.

Discover 3D design

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Autocad 2018 introduced for Mac

Software company Autodesk has released the latest version of Autocad, its 3D design software. Autocad 2018  come with new features and enhancements including external reference path repair, Autodesk introduces autocad 2018 for Mac.

Autodesk allows to migrate custom files and settings from AutoCAD 2017 for Mac

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Enhancement in Autocad 2018 includes:

  • PDF import including  SHX font files

  • External file references  with tools to fix broken paths for externally referenced files.

  • Object selection

  • Convert text and Mtext objects to a single Mtext object.
  • Share design views in a web browser

  • High-resolution monitor support on 4K and higher resolution displays

Autodesk has also improved the user interface by adding dialog boxes and toolbars.

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Object selection

To learn more about new Autocad 2018 , visit the Autodesk website,

For information how to donwload  Autocad 2018 read how to download free Autocad 2018 

Functional Analysis-concept and tools

As mentioned in the previous post ,functional analysis is a method to define the needs the product has to answer and to help experss the specifications.

Functional analysis tools

The “animals with horn” is a tool to help the user to define the specifications.
The head of the animal represents the product to be designed.
Two horns have to answer the two questions: Who is the beneficiary of the product? And Which interactors are concerned?
The tongue of the animals define for what the product is defined.
This tool permits to question the problem about the product itself, the market, the context of the project and the objectives

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A Function represents an action of a product or one of its elements only express in term on finality
A service function: is an action requested to a product to satisfy a part of the customer needs. The service functions include:

  • The Interaction functions
  • the Adaptation functions
  • The external point of view is the view of the customer or the user

The whole service functions expressed from an external point of view contributes to the functional wording of the need

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The diagram of interactors also called octopus diagram represents the service functions. The product to design is in the center of the diagram., and the external elements (EE) of the environment are positioned around.
An interaction function links to external elements through the product.
An adaptation function links directly an external element to the product.
One diagram has to be defined for each step of the cycles for the use.

A constraint is a characteristic, an effect or an arrangement of design that is mandatory or that has been forbidden for any reasons.
We distinguish the external constraint that concerns finality and that characterizes the relations the product maintains with its environment.
And the internal constraint that concerns the solution, qualified as design disposals.
By example, external constraints can be expressed for the market, the customer, and internal constraints are for the solutions or the technical strategy.

Wording the functions is done with the definition of The goals: why, which goals to assure this function? Is the need really exist? What could provoke the evolution of the function?
And the causes: Why, What are the needed reasons for this functions? What could do that theses goals and causes disappear?

source:ecqg

Discover 3D design

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Discover 3D design

What is knowledge management and why is it important?

“knowledge management caters to the critical issues of organizational adaptation, survival and competence in face of increasingly discontinuous environmental change. Essentially, it embodies organizational processes that seek synergistic combination of
-data and information processing capacity of information technologies,
-and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings” 

This is a strategic view of Knowledge Management that considers the synergy between technological and behavioral issues
as necessary for survival in “wicked environments”.
The need for synergy of technological and human capabilities is based on the distinction between the “old world of business” and the “new world of business” Malhotra

Old world of business VS New world of business

Within this view, the old world of business is characterized by predictable environments in which focus is on prediction and optimization based efficiencies.
This is the world of competence based on “information” as the strategic asset
and the emphasis is on controlling the behavior of organizational agents toward fulfillment of pre-specified organizational goals and objectives.

Information and control systems are used in this world for achieving the alignment of the organizational actors with pre-defined “best practices”.
The assumption is that such best practices retain their effectiveness over time.

In contrast, high levels of uncertainty and inability to predict the future characterize the new world of business.
Use of the information and control systems and compliance with the pre-defined goals, objectives and best practices
may not necessarily achieve long-term organizational competence.
This is the world of “re-everything”, which challenges the assumptions underlying the “accepted way of doing things”.

This world needs the capability to understand the problems afresh given the changing environmental conditions.
The focus is not only on finding the right answers but also on finding the right questions.
This world is contrasted from the “old world” by its emphasis on “doing the right thing” rather than “doing things right”
In our thinking, Knowledge Management is a framework within which the organization views all its processes as knowledge process.
In this view, all business processes involve creation, dissemination, renewal and application of knowledge toward organizational sustenance and survival.

This concept embodies a transition from the recently popular concept of “informational value chain” to a “knowledge value chain”.
What is the difference?

Informational value chain VS knowledge value chain

The information value chain, considers technological systems as key components guiding the organization’s business processes,
while treating humans as relative passive processors that implement “best practices” archived in information databases.
In contrasts, the knowledge value chain treats human systems as key component that engage in continuous assessment of information archived in the technological system.
In this view, the human actors do not implement best practices without active inquiry.
Human actors engage in an active process of sense making to continuously assess the effectiveness of best practices

The underlying premise is that the best practices of yesterday may not be taken for granted as best practices of today or tomorrow.
Hence double loop learning, unlearning and relearning processes need to be design into the organizational business processes

In the previous definition, Knowledge Management embodies organizational processes that seek synergistic combination of capacities of information technologies and human beings.
So, if we want to adapt tools and organization in order to realize such synergy, we have to associate the knowledge capitalization with the use of expert system and the concurrent engineering with the use of integrated design.

Formalization of knowledge

Knowledge is the internal representation that people can do in their minds, when they acquire new information.
The same information is not consider with the same value for anybody, as the understanding depends strongly of what has been learnt before.
Information is transformed in knowledge with a cognitive process and depend of the context (time, location, environment) this information is taking into account.
In this way, you can formalized your knowledge and transcript it in information, but you only can capitalize out of your brain information.
Knowledge cannot be directly shared. Only information can be.
So we normally can use the term of formalization of knowledge, but we must also normally use the capitalization, sharing and re-contextualization of information.

Functional analysis

Functional analysis id a method to define the needs the product has to answer. These specifications highlight the services the product has to give back.
For the functional analysis, we have first to define the frontier between the product itself and the external environment of the product.
The specifications concern the external functional analysis.
The design process will use the internal functional analysis

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The specifications need five steps to be completely defined.
The first one is the specifications of the needs, what the user can expect from the product.
The second step has to define the product life cycle., not only the different phases from specifications to recycling, but also if the product is used in different situation, in different cycles.
For each of these cycles, the next step define the external environment of the product, why this environment concerns the product. This permits to express the interaction and adaptation service functions and to validate these functions defining the goals and causes attached to them.
Next, for each of the service functions is defined the characteristics of the external environment and the performances we expect for this function, giving a value criteria.
At the end, we need to identify the different participants who are concerned by the different situations of the product life cycle to formulate the external and internal constraints.

Formalize knowledge about design

To formalize knowledge about design, we also need the use of models.
The design process uses two different model, the product model and the activity model.
Product model is the way to structure the decisions taken during the design process, when activity model is the way to run the design process.
We already saw in previous lectures that integrated design is based on concurrent engineering and asks the different actors concerned with the life cycle of the product to intervene during the design process using the just need concept, in order to achieve the emergence of the solution.
All the constraints and design decisions have to be stored and will form the data model. We propose to formulate this data model using three kind of elements that we will named: the components, the links and the relations.
But this data model cannot be dissociate to the knowledge used to build it
and will refer to a knowledge model.
We propose to formulate our knowledge model using two concepts: the features and the production rules.

The feature model is used to formulate factual knowledge, when the production rules are used for temporal knowledge.
We have to remind that each of the participant of the design process has a specific profession and so must have his specific view on the project.
For that, each participant has to use a set of features and production rules that are particular to their job, what we called vernacular features or vernacular production rules. They are vernacular because they only can be understood by their own profession.
Of course these people can also use some features and production rules that are common to different profession. These features and production rules are qualified as vehicular. They can have an interest for different actors of the design process and serve in discussions and negotiations.
Some of the vehicular features or production rules are so well known by anybody that we call them universal.
Geometry procures by example universal features. Anybody knows what is a cylinder or a plan. It is why the geometry has been used as collaborative concept. In the same reason, as anybody can use geometry, the corresponding market is very huge and this explain why we have today Computer Aided Design systems that are in fact Geometrical Computer Aided systems.

A feature is defined with
-a generic name and is relative to a context or a domain. The same name in two different contexts can give two different features.
-a list of characteristics that can be typed characteristics. We use for that the classical types as character, integer or float numbers, but also specific types we have predefined as type point, vector, line, straight line, surface, plane, and skin. The surfaces are the geometrical surfaces, mathematically defined. The skins are the representative of real surfaces, with the reference geometrical surface, but also with dimension allowances or defaults.
-and sometime some behavioral descriptors: these descriptors give some relations between the characteristics, from the concerned feature or from the concerned feature and some other one.You can see on the slide some example of features: A flat part is used in technological view, has a name (a string of characters) and a medium surface which has to be a plane.

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A graphic representation of the model starts with the main component, here an electric motor.
The associated links to this component are attached to a vertical line below the component. Output shaft, power supply, attachment… are characteristics of an electric motor and are considered here to define the specification of the wanted product.
The relations give specific values for each characteristics represented in the links. The output shaft has to support a torque of 100mN with a speed of 1450 revolutions per minute, and the cost of the motor has to be lower that 120$.

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Multi-view decomposition concept

With this concept, we can not only add a decomposition diagram for a component, but we want to add different decomposition of the same component, each of them being specific to a view or a domain. Her we can explain how is composed the rotor sheet, depending of the frame view, with the skin features, or the manufacturing view, with manufacturing features, or of the material view, using some material features.
The interest is to get the possibility to put some relations between characteristics of different view, keeping the reasons for the choices done.
The manufacturing of a part in sheet metal is normally done by punching. It is the case here to obtain the boring and this gives a quality 9 on the quality scale (quite rough).
The skin nick needs a better quality as it is the surface where the magnetic field is coupling.
If we use the punching, the plastic deformation of the sheet during the cutting gives an orientation of the metal grains that avoids to get a magnetic field parallel to the medium surface of the rotor sheet. Using laser cutting for this surface gives a better quality of the surface (quality 6), that reduce the possible allowance between the rotor and the stator but also keeps a perfect orientation of the grains.
The choice of the speed feed of the laser depends of the wanted properties of the metal, that is given by the metallurgists.

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Conclusion

Artificial Intelligence is a  technique in order to permit the computer not only to solve equations but also to reason as an intelligent actor in order to solve problems or to give diagnosis.
Prolog, Frames, Production Rules, are the new languages used for the description of the expert systems.
New specialists in cognition were engaged in order to question the old engineers, to extract their knowledge and to build virtual experts in different fields.

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source ecqa

Is Google chrome using our device to mine Cryptocurrency secretly?

With the increasing value of bitcoin, many websites mine cryptocurrency without visitors awarness, such as movies streaming movies websites .one technique is to use a program known as CoinHive. Has google chrome  joined this party?

According to a post on Bleeping Computer, a Google Chrome extension named archive poster with over  105,000 users has hijacked CPUs users to mine Miner cryptocurrency when the browser is open without users permission.

Archive poster is advertised as a mod for Tumblr that allows users an easier way to “reblog, queue posts , and so on, from another blog’s archive.

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According to Mursch, a US-based security researcher on the cryptojacking, the Coinhive cryptojacking code is hidden in a JavaScript file loaded from the following URL:

https://c7e935.netlify[.]com/b.js

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How 3D models are used in engineering?

Digital mock-up tools used widely in industries like automotive, aerospace and nuclear, also in medicine, entertainment and media!

Characterized by being a Heavy weight and complex CAD system, can they be operational to the degree of displaying an entire car DMU from a personal computer?

The story began with the computer-aided design (CAD), but it was so hard to use, took so much space and need so much computer power, and then come the digital mock-up (DMU).The DMU come also to solve industrial issues related to externalization activities and decentralized team workers.

To simplify the definition of DMU:

  • It is the 3D visualization of parts and assemblies using the computer.

To have definition that is more academic: Digital Mock-Up (DMU) is a concept that allows the description of a product for its entire lifecycle.

Using the DMU tools, you can visualize, animate, dimension, manipulate and check the clearance and interference of part and assembly designs. Etc.….

DMU tools allow an important functionality: ”decoupling “which allows users to do useful things:

  • Give Access to non CAD-users to DMU capabilities
  • Speed design analysis and problem solving
    • You can assign constraints and play with model.
  • Apply DMU capabilities to part and assembly files created by different services within the enterprise

Different types of modeling
Different types of modeling

Level of details

the quality of modelisation depends on the degree of tessellation , if you increase this degree this will increase the quality of the model, but also the metadata.

level of details of a  geometry model
level of details of a geometry model

Communication with ERP

The DMU includes assembly trees, geometry, part names and layers, and product lifecycle management (PLM) attributes that are extracted from native CAD and interchanged with other data system like enterprise ressources planning  ( ERP).

This way, users can create and update parts catalogs and Bills of material ( BOMs), those ones ( BOMs) are crucial elements for ERP systems.

This interference permits a level of decentralization without chaos because you can share in real time technical data and accurate tools to solve problems.

2

Part, assembly and tree

Helping management

The DMU capabilities help to master project management data, for instance:

  •  Master geometry tool allows different people to work on the same project
  • Space allocation mock-ups allows different systems and team to work on the same model without crash risk.

Other capabilities of DMU

The DMU capabilities did not include only mechanical systems, but also, electronics ones, see below Eagle,  (3d design software) features for electronics purposes. The DMU tools combines mechanical parts with electronic components.

The DMU capabilities include kinematic, in fact, users can do simulations of Interface detection between one moving and one static part or assembly.

The DMU tools provide stress analysis on components and assemblies using Finite Element Analysis.

3

Analysis and solving design problem

Who are using DMU?

As viewers, anybody can use DMU capabilities even non-CAD users, but engineers can:

  • design and configure complex products
  • validate their designs
  • visualize and communicate their concepts

Managers can

  • verify the comprehension of specifications and requirements
  • derive collaboration/team structures from the future product structure
  • track project progress

Before inventing the CAD systems and DMU tools, Designers used to draw 2D drawings, so if you are good at drawing you have a good chance to be a good designer, and you have just to learn about CAD and DMU tools.

Free DMU tools

Here bellow some free DMU tools:

Sketchup

For personal use, Sketchup was developed by google and sold to Trimble. But, the free version has limitation.

Draft sight

For personal use, you must activate the free version by a valid email.

Draft sight use the same type file as Autodesk, which allows sharing files with both of them.

FreeCAD

FreeCAD is an open source, for building information modeling ( BIM) ,it’s similar to CATIA and creo,…

And there’s Autocad from Autodesk and CATIA student free version.

Media DMU tools

Illustrator and after effect were developped by Adobe and they are used for media design and simulation purposes.

Maya, a solution developped by Autodesk, offers simulation,animation and 3D studio.

Autocad, developped by Autodesk can be used also in media in addition of it application in industry and BIM.

Electronic Modeling

Eagle developped by Autodesk offers features like a set of PCB layout and schematic editing tools and so on….

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Gearbest Merchant Stores From Just $0.99

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EAGLE shematic editor

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EAGLE PCB layout editor

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Additive manufacturing predictions for 2018: beautiful promises

Experts predict three essential elements about 3D printing industry.

  • Increased markets
  • the metal quality used in 3D printing will be improved
  • The polymers will be also improved

Increased markets

The number of countries investing in 3D printing will increase,according to According to Michelle Bockman, global head of 3D printing commercial expansion and development for HP Inc, the 3D printing industry will know increased adoption . the evolution technology will improve the 3D printing machine productivity and quality;This will lead to decreased cost. the 3D printing product will include different industries such as automotive.

Scott Sevcik, VP of Manufacturing Solutions at Stratasys, agree with this point of view, with a specific emphasis on aerospace. “Looking into 2018, we’ll definitely see the acceleration of production part adoption in aerospace, This is seen as suppliers expand use of 3D printing for efficient, low volume and custom production – and as airlines and MROs leverage the technology for supply chain flexibility.”

Improved metal of the 3D printing

Metal position is becoming increasingly important,” Van der Schueren, chief technology officer of Materialise, which’s a 3D printing service provider relayed, said“Metal 3D printing will become more and more of a necessity when solving specific manufacturing challenges and creating customized, complex end-use products.

“A broader range of metals will be optimized for direct metal printing. The conversion of raw materials into finished production products will see significant growth in 2018. Hardware will be developped in parallel to become more capable from both a part-size perspective as well as process control, with solutions like 3D Systems’ recently announced DMP 8500. This machine can print a 500-mm XYZ, the largest “seamless” part capability in the industry. This class of development will solidify the position of the technology as mainstream in industries like healthcare and aerospace. In the latter, for example, design optimization of parts expressed by AM to create new geometries has the potential to save thousands of dollars in fuel consumption alone, just by improving the strength-to-weight ratios.”

Polymers

“For thermopolymer 3D printing, there will be a huge growth in the availability of PEEK 3D printing capabilities. Benchtop SLS will begin to offer viable solutions, with four to five different players,”David Sher, CEO and founder of 3D Printing Business Media

Sherechoed that he also believes that construction 3D printing will make a big jump in terms of adoption.” While we’ve seen a number of projects produce technology demonstrations, very few firms have 3D-printed usable structures.

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source engineering.com

كيفية تحميل أوتوكاد 2018 مجانا

أوتوديسك يوفرمجموعة من البرمجيات تستخدم في المجالات التالية:الهندسة ,الترفيه,التصنيع والهندسة المعمارية  والصناعات.

أوتوديسك يوفر دروسا في التصميم وبرامج مجانية للطلاب والمعلمين.

فهو يوفر لك (الطالب أو المعلم) إمكانية لتحميل مجانا البرامج التي تحتاج إليها

:و في مايلي شرح لاستعمالات عدد من هذه البرامج

مايا ود 3 ماكس: تصميم ثلاثي الابعاد، والرسوم المتحركة وأدوات المحاكاة لصنع محتوى وسائل الترفيه و الإعلام.

ريفيت: برنامج لبناء نمذجة المعلومات

االياس: الياس هو برنامج للتصاميم الصناعية المستخدمة خاصة في السيارات،.

المخترع: إنه برنامج للتصميم الميكانيكي والتصميم بمساعدة الحاسوب.

بيم 360: انها برامج إدارة البناء.

أوتوكاد و أوتوكاد لوت: أوتوكاد هو برنامج معروف لتصميم 2 و  3  ابعاد واحد من الرواد في التصميم بمساعدة الكمبيوتر.

انقر هنا تحميل مجانا أو معرفة المزيد عن منتجات أوتوديسك

كيفية تحميل أوتوكاد مجانا (الطلاب أو المعلمين)

انها بسيطة جدا لتحميل البرنامج، بدلا من  التعرض لخطر تنزيل البرامج الضارة :

هي ثلاث خطوات بسيطة:

  انقر هنا

,سيتم تحويلك لموقع اوتودسك

بعد ذلك في اسفل الصفحة، انقر تلاميذ و معلمين

(students and educators)

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, free software بعد ذلك انقر برمجيات مجانية,

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اختيار البرمجيات للطلاب من موقع أوتوديسك

سترى برامج مختلفة، بعض منهم المذكورة أعلاه، انقر على أوتوكاد

تسجيل الدخول أو إنشاء حساب إذا لم يكن لديك واحد، ثم،اختيار الإصدار (أوتوكاد 2018)، واختيار نظام التشغيل واللغة التي تريدها. أخيرا انقر تحميل الان، كما هو مبين في الصور!

 

.

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ان كان لديك أي استفسار، اتركه بالتعليق رجاء

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autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,

 

autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,

 

 

 

How to download free Autocad 2018

Autodesk provides a package of softwares for media, entertainment engineering,  manufacturing, architecture, building, construction and industries.It’s one of the leaders of 3D  design, engineering and entertainment software.

Autodesk brings support , training, classes on demand and Free Softwares for students and teachers.

It gives you ( student or teacher) the possiblity to download for free the softwares you need. the package of softwares includes:

Maya and 3ds Max software: 3D design, animation and simulation tools to make entertainment and media content.

Revit: software for building information modeling

Alias: Alias is a software for industrial design used especially in automotive, it brings users tools sketching, concept modeling, surfacing, and visualization.

Inventor: it’s a software for mechanical design and computer aided design.

BIM 360: It’s a construction management software.

Autocad and Autocad LT: Autocad is a well known software for 2D and 3D design , one of the first pioneer of computer aided design. Autocad LT is a cost effective 2D computer aided design.

Click here to Try, download for free or learn more about Autodesk products

How to download Autocad for free ( students or teachers)

It’s very simple to download it, instead of using non trusting website, and take the risk of dowloading malware softwares.these are the three simple steps to follow:

step N°1

  • click here  Autodesk  you will be redirected to the page of Autodesk as you see bellow:

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Then Click on the menu (  above of the page at your right) you will find this:

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After that choose Students and eduction , they offer download for free for students over the world not only US;

Then choose Free software

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Step2

  • you will see different softwares , some of them are mentioned above, click on Autocad

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Step 3

Sign in or create an accounr if you don’t have one, then, choose the version ( Autocad 2018) , choose the operation system and the language you want.

Finally click on donwload now!

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Autocad 2018 student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,autocad student,

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توقعات مستقبل الطباعة الثلاثية الابعاد لسنة 2018

يتوقع خبراء ان تعرف الطباعة الثلاثية الابعاد انتشارا  صناعيا, زيادة في الانتاج  و تطورا في صلابة و جودة المعادن المستعملة كمواد أولية في هذه الطباعة

انتشار  صناعي

وفقا لميشيل بوكمان، رئيس شركة الطباعة الثلاثية الابعاد*ستشهد  الطباعة الثلاثية الابعاد توسعا تجاريا ، و زيادة اعتماد سوف يتخذ الشكل التالي، وفقا لبوكمان: “الطباعة الصناعية الثلاثية الابعاد ستتوسع إلى مجموعة من البلدان الجديدة، مما يجعلها تحول العالم حقا. سوف يعرف التقدم التكنولوجي زيادة كبيرة في سرعة وموثوقية وقدرة الإنتاج الثلاثية الابعاد. وسوف يتحسن حجم الطباعة الثلاثية الابعاد ، مما يجعل التصنيع الرقمي أكثر فعالية من حيث التكلفة لمزيد من أنواع الشركات في المزيد من الأماكن. المزيد من الشركات سوف تدخل سوق المواد ، مما يساعد على دفع الابتكار، وانخفاض التكاليف وزيادة تنوع المواد. وستصبح التطبيقات التجارية للطباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد أكثر تحديدا عبر الصناعات الرئيسية – السيارات والطب والفضاء والسلع الاستهلاكية والصناعة الثقيلة صناعة الثورة الصناعية الرقمية جزءا متناميا من حياتنا اليومية “.

وعزز جريج مارك، الرئيس التنفيذي لشركة ماركفورجيد، التطبيق العملي لتكنولوجيا الطباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد، مؤكدا على تحولها عن النماذج الأولية ونحو أجزاء الاستخدام النهائي.

وبعبارة أخرى، فإن الضجيج المرتبط بالطباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد على مدى السنوات القليلة الماضية يأتي الآن.

وقال “الآن، نعيش أخيرا في الوعد وطباعة أجزاء عالية القوة لحالات الاستخدام في العالم الحقيقي”، وقال مارك. وأضاف “مع الطابعا  ماركفورجيد، الشركات قادرة على طباعة المركبات المقوى بالألياف الكربونية التي هي قوية بما فيه الكفاية لأشد التطبيقات، والطباعة المعدنية  الثلاثية الابعاد حصلت على حجم أكثر بأسعار معقولة”، وأضاف. “جنبا إلى جنب، هذه الابتكارات توسع بشكل كبير في القيمة للطباعة الثلاثية الابعاد وتقود النمو الثلاثي ابعاد مدفوعة بالعائد السريع على الاستثمار. وعادة ما يتحصل العملاء الماركوفورجيون عائد استثمار لمدة ثلاثة أشهر لطابعات ألياف الكربون. فترة الاسترداد سريعة . 31 في المئة من العملاء يتمكن من شراء طابعة ثانية خلال السنة الأولى “.

نائب رئيس تطوير التطبيقات المتقدمة في أنظمة  باتريك دان يعتقد أيضا أن الطباعة الثلاثية الابعاد ستشهد زيادة اعتماد. “في عام 2018، سوف نرى الشركات من جميع التشكيلات في جميع الصناعات تتحرك نحو اعتماد أعمق لتصنيع الطباعة الثلاثية الابعاد”، وقال دان. “سوف تقود التكنولوجيا الشركات الصغيرة بمعنى أنها يمكن أن تصل مستوى قدراتها إلى تلك الأعمال التجارية أكثر نضجا . وهذا قد يقدم مستويات جديدة من المنافسة ونماذج الأعمال الجديدة وفرص السوق. وبالمثل، ستشارك الشركات الكبيرة تقنيات الطباعة الثلاثية الابعاد في مرحلة مبكرة من العملية، بدءا من مرحلة التصميم، حيث أن القدرات لدعم سير العمل الكامل من طرف إلى طرف تنضج “.

تطور في صلابة و جودة المعادن

كما ذكر في المقدمة، تتطور الطباعة المعدنية الثلاثية الابعاد بسرعة، سواء من حيث خفض التكاليف أو من حيث زيادة اعتمادها. بارت فان دير شويرن، الرئيس التنفيذي للتكنولوجيا من ماترياليز، مزود خدمة الطباعة الثلاثية الابعاد ومطور البرمجيات، صرح أن   ” ونحن نعلم أن الطباعة المعدنية الثلاثية الابعاد لن تحل أبدا محل التقليدي التصنيع ولكن بوصفها تكنولوجيا التصنيع مجانية، موقفها يزداد أهمية، “فان دير نقلت”. والطباعة المعدنية الثلاثية الابعاد تصبح أكثر وأكثر من ضرورة عندما تحل تحديات صناعة محددة و معقدة الاستخدام النهائي للمنتجات. تحقيقا لهذه الغاية،امتلكنا أس تك هذا العام، وهي شركة التصنيع الألمانية المتخصصة في صب النموذج المعدني. مع خبرتهم في المعادن و خبرتنا في الطباعة الثلاثية الابعاد، ونحن على استعداد لجلب المعادن الثلاثية الابعاد الطباعة إلى المستوى التالي “. وستشهد الطباعة المعدنية ثلاثية الأبعاد تحسنا من حيث التكنولوجيات الجديدة، فضلا عن التحسينات التي طرأت على التكنولوجيات القائمة. على سبيل المثال، أعلنت شركة الثلاثية الابعاد سيستمز مؤخرا عن توسيع خطها المعدني للطباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد مع نظام كبير وأكثرتطورا .

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البوليمرات ومواد الطباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد الأخرى

وبينما  المعادن تنتظر زيادة كبيرة في الطباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد، فإن البلاستيك يتطور أيضا جنبا إلى جنب مع التكنولوجيا. وهناك أيضا مواد جديدة يجري تطويرها، وخاصة السيراميك.

وشدد ديفيد شير، الرئيس التنفيذي ومؤسس** الطباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد  وكبير المحللين في سمارتيش الأسواق “، سيكون هناك نمو كبير في توافر قدرات الطباعة  ثلاثية الأبعاد. وسوف تبدأ سلز بينشتوب في تقديم حلول قابلة للتطبيق، مع أربعة إلى خمسة لاعبين مختلفين “.

على وجه التحديد في سمارتيش، تخطط شير للتركيز على العديد من الاتجاهات الجديدة: سبائك الألومنيوم، والمعادن الثمينة  والسيراميك  التطور والتوسع في البوليمرات الحرارية المتقدمة (، بايك، بيك و بي) قدرات الطباعة الطباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد.

سوف يتم توسيع  أيضا القدرات المادية للطابعة ثلاثية الأبعاد, يعمل المختبر الآن مع الشركة المصنعة للجهاز، سينسيناتي إنكوربوراتد،  لإيداع مواد متعددة في وقت واحد. وهذا يتيح وظائف محسنة للأدوات والقوالب ، فضلا عن غيرها من المنتجات

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زيادة السرعة والإنتاجية

الطباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد  بطيئة و مكلفة. ومع ذلك، فإن التكنولوجيات الجديدة تجعل التكنولوجيا أسرع بكثير، مما يقلل من تكلفة كل جزء من خلال زيادة إنتاجية الطباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد.

وتحدث شير عن هذه النقطة قائلا: “سوف تنمو جميع التقنيات الرئيسية (انصهار مسحوق المعادن، وانصهار مسحوق البوليمر، البلمرة الصورة والبثق) في المتوسط ​​بمعدل 10 من حيث السرعة الإجمالية ، وهو ما يعني نمو عشر مرات من حيث العدد من الاجزاء المطبوعة. وسيحدث ذلك من خلال سرعات طباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد أعلى، وهذا سيؤدي إلى اعتماد أكبر بكثير في قطاعات مثل السيارات وبعض الأسواق الاستهلاكية (فضلا عن استمرار اعتمادها في الأسواق التقليدية مثل الطبية، طب الأسنان والفضاء بالطبع). “

ويعتقد دان أن سرعة عمليات الطباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد سوف تزيد في جميع أنحاء عام 2018. “من وجهة نظر الأجهزة، والطابعات في جميع أنحاء الصناعة تستمر في الانتاج أسرع وأسرع، وان الوقت لنموذج ووقت الانتاج سيحققان كفاءات اقتصادية وفوائد جديدة للشركات الصغيرة والشركات على حد سواء “.

ومن العوامل الرئيسية أيضا لتحسين الإنتاجية تكنولوجيات التشغيل الآلي التي يجري تطويرها في هذه الصناعة. فان دير شويرن، من ماترياليز، تصور تنفيذ هذا من خلال البرمجيات، نقول إنجينيرينغ دوت كوم، “كما تقنيات الطباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد تنضج، وسوف تتحول التركيز نحو تبسيط عمليات ما قبل وبعد الإنتاج. ومن الأمثلة على الطريقة التي نتوقعها هذا الاتجاه هو مرحلة ماترياليز e-ستيج التي أطلقت حديثا، وهي وحدة برمجيات تسمح للمستخدم بتوليد بنية دعم للطباعة المعدنية ثلاثية الأبعاد بشكل تلقائي تماما. “

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source: engineering.com

 

What do you need to know about virtual reality?

Virtual reality brings together technologies that enable the immersion of one or multiple users in a symbolic or imaginary world drawing inspiration of the real world.[Fuchs 1996]

In my opinion there are several things one need to know about virtual reality :, the domains that support the virtual reality , the domains of virtual reality application,the virtual prototyping and one of the most important founders: Jaron Zepel Lanier

Jaron Zepel Lanier

Jaron Zepel Lanier is a pioneer in the domain of virtual reality, he is the founder of the first compnay to sell virtual reality goggles and gloves.Capture.PNG

Domains supporting the virtual reality

The virtual reality field is supported by several domains which are:

  • Computer science
  • Physics cognitive
  • Physics
  • Robotics

Domains of virtual reality application

  • Design and Architecture (CAD, urban planning)
  • Transport (navigation)
  • Scientific visualization (physics, mechanics, chemistry, biology, etc.)
  •  Medicine (surgery, radiology)
  • Multimedia fun (video games, theme parks)
  • Art and Design (digital work)
  • Education (interactive whiteboard)
  • Museum (interactive terminal)
  • Media / Show

Application in design

In design the virtual reality is useful for many reasons ,in fact, it brings capability to do :

  • Visualization of calculations
  • Project review
  • Functional simulation
  • Modelization
  • Training

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Virtual prototyping

« By virtual prototyping, we refer to the process of simulating the user, the product and
their combined (physical) interaction in software through the different stages of
product design, and the quantitative performance analysis of the product »
[Gary Wang, 2002]

It allows companies to decrease the manufacturing cost by elimination of physics prtotyping, to improve the design lead time , to improce the product ergonomics and so on.

Virtual reality question

Impossible forms: is it an illusion?

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Stereoscopic glasses inconvenients

There are several inconvients regarding the use of Stereoscopic glasses, this includes:

  • Color alteration
  • Loss of brightness
  • Limited field of vision

3D printing tools

every 3D printing needs computer aided design tools in order to send the send the 3D model for printing.

Maya is an Autodesk software which provides tools for 3D printing with an easy surface to work on.

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What’s Maya Autodesk for?

Maya is a software used to create 3D virtual mock up,simulation, motion graphics, 3D animation, dynamics and effects and 3D rendering and shading.

What’s new in 2018?

Maya 2018 provides improvement and new tools that helps users to work faster.

  • New: UV editor workflow, look, and feel

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  • New: Clump modifier for interactive grooming
  • New: After Effects live link
  • New:Additional MASH nodes

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place

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world

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Why doctors need CAD tools?

Not only engineers and designers who need CAD tools ,nowdays, also doctors need CAD tools too !

Away from industrial purposes like: “customer satisfaction” , manufacturing optimisation and mastering product complexity, the Digital Mock-up (DMU) tools are used to help fighting diseases and improve human being health.

Hre we will see how how Complex and accurate 3D model help dentalists and how the accurate 3D model are used in simulation in order to detect anomalous human structure anatomy or function processes leading to diseases.

Computational anatomy

The computational anatomy can be used for the detection and classification of pathologies, in fact, the objective of computational anatomy is the modeling and analysis of biological variability of human anatomy. The simulation of anatomies and normal variation lead to the discovery of structural differences between healthy and diseased populations.

Computational physiology

The computational physiology is used for better understanding the basic processes leading to the apparition of pathologies; the objective of computational physiology is to provide 3D models of body functions and simulate them.

The modeling steps are:

  • Build the 3D model of the human anatomy
  • Involve the biomechanical modeling of various tissues, organs, vessels, muscles or bone structures;
  • Involve a modeling of the functions of the major biological systems (e.g. cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, central or peripheral nervous, muscular, reproductive, hormonal, etc.) or some pathological metabolism
  • Modeling the higher functions of the human brain.

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After those steps, the model can be used in surgery simulation, as shown in this video of  Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Procedure (TAVI),

Dental 3D scanners

In order to produce the desired 3D dental prosthesis  ( of a patient) data efficiently, Dental 3D scanners should meet the following requirement:

  • high-precision
  • compact
  • light-weighted

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  • Easy, fast and highly accurate scanning

An average of 50 seconds for a complete upper and lower full-arches scanning.

  • Additional Scan” efficiently and flexibly

In case you miss a gap unscanned , it will make it easier to come back and scan again.

  • Easy Handling
  • Data transfer

The 3D scanner must have integrated 3D CAD in order to transfer the 3D data.

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Example of 3D Scanner Specifications

You need to look after accurate specifications according to your need , like those ones:

Camera Resolution 1280 × 960 × 60fps
Scanning Area Ø100mm × H60mm
Accuracy ±25µm
Rotary Stage 2-Axis (Tilt: ±45° , Pan: 360°)
Size W333 × D398 × H485mm
Weight 12Kg
Output data format STL, ms1 (original format)
Attached products Controlling PC
CAD software (exocad)

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What is the best cryptocurrency to buy before 2018?

I made some research regarding this question: What is the best crypto currency to buy before 2018?

I found many answers suggesting hundreds of cryptocurrencies , which one is the best ?in facr, It is very difficult to say which cryptocurrency is the best for an investment.In fact ,before investing one should do his own research and form his own hypotheses and decisions to buying or selling any cryptocurrency.

From my research I pick up two strategies:

  • Invest on the top ten by market cap

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  • to invest in cryptocurrencies that are still under $1 per coin,hoping that they will raise in value in the future.

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You need to do your own research concerning the cryptocurrency, the thechnology behind and what is special about it.You need to be confortable with you choice.

Here some cryptocurrencies that may be intersting according to my research,I made a resume.

  • IOTA

According to some experts IOTA is a promoting cryptocurrency. It ‘s a new technology different from blockchain called TANGLE, it use the internet of things technology , so it aims machine to machine communication.

  • NEO

A smart contract based platform similar to ETHEREUM

  • Ripple

Micro-payments around the world executed at the speed of light

  • Vechain

VeChain is a product management platform integrated with Blockchain technology that puts unique IDs on the Blockchain.

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What’s integrated design?

Integrated design is based on concurrent engineering principles.
All stakeholders have to work together throughout the whole design process. So they can exchange and take common decision.
The process emerges step by step by the introduction of constraints by stakeholders.

Emergence is the way complex systems and patterns arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions

In the design process, we asked the different actors to introduce their different constraints in order to obtain at the end a global product. It is for that we speak about emergence where the details of the final solution are revealed during the process.For such a design process, we consider that we need two different steps:
-The first one is the step of function-structure decomposition
-The second step is really the detailed design done with multiple stakeholdersIn his thesis, Philippe Belloy proved that the first step ends when we get the functional surfaces, these functional surfaces being the consequences of choices for technological elements, esthetic forms or aerodynamic ones. And it is when we get these functional surfaces that we have to ask all the people being concerned by the life cycle of the product to be present to introduce their constraints as soon as they get them.”Philippe Belloy, “Intégration de connaissances métier dans la conception : un modèle pour les pièces mécaniques», PhD thesis”

Exercice

In order to understand the interest of the first step, let take this exercice:
To take a pen and a sheet of paper, and to draw in one minute what can be a heater for a baby-bottle.

95% of the answer are like this, as the normal thinking is to reproduce a well known object doing such functionality.
But in fact, what is the question ? To draw a heater for a baby-bottle !
We request here about a functionality for heating the baby bottle. And the first question we have normally to answer is: what are the physical principle in order to heat a container ?

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95% of the answer

Physical principles

What are the possible physical principles:
-By conduction: to heat water with gas (in a pan), or with electricity (as the previous heater)
-With the use of microwave oven using the molecular agitation
-With the use of solar energy
-With the use of chemical reactionOf course the choice of one or an other physical principle depends on the context for the use of this baby bottle !It is absolutely necessary to think about the functionalities which we wish to solve before thinking to a physical solution.Such a step can make it possible to find unusual solutions to solve the problem and thus to think innovation.

Function-Structure

The first step of Function-Structure decomposition consists in:
-To focus on a functionality
-To choose the possible physical principles
-For each of them to evaluate the admissible solutions
-To chose one solution or some solutions if we want to prepare variants
-For a chosen solution, to determine if we have new induced functions (the choice of a cooling by oil for an engine requires to envisage a seal, which is not necessary for a cooling by air)
-For each of the solutions, to determinate the functional surfacesThis work is mainly done by technologist, or specialists who implement technology within a field of engineering.

The mechanical engineering field is not the same as the electronic field. Why? Because we have many hundred of experiment and the mechanical science has been optimized and so get a lot of complexities.In electronic technology, we create the science in the same time we create the tools to use it: the computer. And the integration of the components on a chip is such that we increase every year the capacity on a chip in the same time we reduce the size of the connection. In this field, we can think about functionalities, and we transform each of the functions in a specific package of transistors. A specific controller is specified as a tree of functions transformed in the same tree of solutions.In mechanical engineering, we can start with a first function, and with the choice of possible physical principles to get a list of possible solutions. For a function 1 we can choose a structure 1.Perhaps a function 2 will need 2 different structures 2a and 2b to be solved. But the choice of the structure 2b can induced the need to add a new function.If you want to refresh the crankcase of a motor of a bike, you can do it using the air flowing around the motor, or you can do it using oil inside the crankcase. But in this case, you need to assume a new function that is the sealing of the case.Sometimes, the same structure can be used to solve two functions: the design of the crankcase of a gearbox is use to fix the relative position of the shafts but also contain the oil and to permit the transfer of heat between the oil and the external air.But what happens if we want to suppress one of the two function?We saw that in our case the function –structure representation is not a tree but a graph. And it is more complicated to work with a graph than with a tree !

source : ECQA

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What’s concurrent engineering development model?

Concurrent engineering is defined as “a systematic approach to the integrated, simultaneous design of products and their related processes, including manufacture and support. This approach is intended to cause the developers, from the outset, to consider all elements of the product life cycle from conception through disposal, including quality, cost, schedule, and user requirements”

Why talking about concurrent engineering?

CALS is a project for Computer aided acquisition and logistic support. CALS started in the USA in 1985, launched by the DOD, Ministry of Defense, with a budget of 2 billion of $ per year.
CALS wants to exchange and manage the technical information needed for the design, production, purchasing and logistic for a weapon system.
In France, CALS France started only on 1990. It was launched by the DGA (Direction Générale de l’Armement), in charge of the projects Rafale and Apache.
It concerns about 20 to 30% of the turnover for the great enterprises, with some hundred of equipment providers, about 10.000 SME or 250.000 peoples.
Germany started a CALS project in 1992

Why to start such CALS projects ?

-On B1 bomber: the documentation, about 1,4 million pages, was more heavy than the bomber itself
-In US Navy: 200.000 manuals, 50 million pages, what can cause a drop in the level of floating of the Kennedy carry-plane of one meter
-5 to 8% of the fatal accidents which have occurred during military operations are due to errors slipped into the documentation of the materials
-US Air Force spends 3,5 million dollars per year because of the errors of documentation
So the question was: how to avoid such troubles ?

For that; they put a strategy in 3 steps:
-Before CALS, the technical information are exchange by paper, among the private companies and the military establishments. We did technical drawings, we did reports, we did documentation, we did copies of these documents and we sent this documents to a lot of people. Of course, all the modifications in the documents were not transmitted to all the actors receiving the previous version. So we can have different versions of the same document in different places.
-Starting in 1985, we expect to be able to exchange the different documents on electronic format, and for that, we have to create some standards. It is the time to standardize the links between computer (serial link RS323), the format of the transfer file (ASCII for text, postscript for writers), …
-The third step has as goal to be able to store the different electronic documents in a common database and to ask each of the concerned actor to get the document at the time they need it, in order to always have the last version of this document.So it was the beginning of concurrent engineering, integrated design, and was done with the introduction of standards.

We are speaking about design of product or system, and we also have to take into account a common definition.
For us, the design starts with the specification of the product, including the wanted functions, the loads and conditions to use this product, its lifetime without defects, the environment or context in which the product has to be used, …
The design only finishes when we get for the product the forms, dimensions, materials, fabrication processes, …, and now the recycling processes.
FACOM, a French machine maker for automotive industry, considered that the design is finished only six month after being put on the market. Because the first real test can always bring some requests from the customers.

What about concurrent engineering?

Two aspects of Concurrent Engineering that distinguish it from conventional approaches to product development are cross-functional integration and concurrency.
Conventional NPD programs execute concept exploration, product design, testing, and production activities serially. Each of these development activities is typically controlled by only one functional organization at a time (e.g., marketing, engineering, manufacturing). When one organization completes its design and development activities, it hands over control and responsibility to the next organizational function.
In the Concurrent Engineering approach, integrated, multi-functional teams work together, simultaneously attacking multiple aspects of new product development. Control and responsibility are shared among functions and development activities

Linear versus concurrent engineering

Concurrent engineering includes designing for assembly, availability, cost, customer satisfaction, maintainability, manageability, manufacturability, operability, performance, quality, risk, safety, schedule, social acceptability, and all other attributes of the product highlights the contrast between concurrent engineering and conventional engineering design.The concurrent engineering environment has the following characteristics:
•Reduced cycle time
•Overlapping of functional activities
•Collaboration in functional decisions
•Concurrent evolution of system and Component decisions
•Critical sequencing

In linear model, the different steps of the design process are put sequentially, with the product opportunity, the concept development, the product design, the process design and the commercial production.

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linear model

In concurrent engineering , We are not obliged to finish one step to start the next one. And we can have partly overlap, largely overlap or no overlap. Here, the degree of concurrency is the activity overlapping. The question is: How do we make decisions for these overlapping activities ?

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we have to define common interfaces between the different tasks and in Collaborative engineering, we create synergy between actors.

Source: ECQA certified profession.

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How CAD helps electronics Designers

The product have been developped and become more and more a complexe system, so electronics design need to follow this developpement and master data over product complexity.

They need to see their printed circuit board (PCB) designs in a 3D model  as they need a larger perspective.

These are three reasons why CAD will be useful for every electronics design

  1. Collaborative engineering. Nowday’s design process is anything but linear. they need agility for Component changes, if you don’t have a tool to understand how your product affect your PCB design process , it will  handicappe your capabilities.
  2. File formats load heavily.Due to data loosing when communicating through different file formats, it takes hours to just supplement what should already be communicated in the design.
  3. The future is mixing disciplines. Engineers are expected to do it all, documentation, emails, design, sourcing; etc.

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Electronics design

HOW CAD tools help Designers

CAD tools brings solutions to many problems that designers face nowdays

  • Design. The cloud-based design environment allows designers to rapidely iterate ideas and bring function and form together, on any device.
  • Simulate. Engineers can test fit and motion, perform simulation, and generate realistic renderings all in the same tool.
  • CAM. for manufacturing, it’s easy to create toolpaths for machining or use the 3D printing setup to bring a prototype to life.

With the release of Autodesk EAGLE 8.3, they ‘ve  connected EAGLE and Fusion 360 to blend  the Engineering CAD and Manufacturing CAD  together. In this release, EAGLE has entered a new dimension, allowing electronic designers to work with:

Fusion 360 Synchronisation with Eagle

It allow to link the Printed Cicruit Board files in EAGLE to a Fusion 360 PCB file and synchronise changes.

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Edit 3D Printed circuit board

Changing the board shapes or moving the components around, all in a 3D space in Fusion 360. Whatever changes are made get sent to EAGLE.

Capture.PNGEngineering collaboration

Engineering collaboration become easier as tool allow to share designs with the entire team.

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Why using 3D models in aerospace?- Essential keys-

3D Models are used in aerospace in different domains. Master geometry and Space allocation are essential keys of the 3D models , so what’s a master geometry and what’s it role?

Context

We know that complexe and big project like airplane manufacturing require several teams to work on the same time in different workstations over the world.

How to manage so decentralized data with complicated links and calculations, how to avoid mistakes such as the one bellow:

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Master Geometry

Master Geometry is the reference of baseline geometry leading the quality of different products like Design Principle, Master geometry allows to the members of a team to work concurrently on the same project at the same time keeping a global overview of the whole project without loosing details.

In aerospace, there are three levels of Master Geometry: full aircraft, sections and work packages. It contains :

  • All the external shapes of the aircraft or section
  • The main geometrical references of: frames, rails, ribs and stringers, main interface points in wire frame
  • All the co-ordinate planes necessary to position the section, the work packagesa.PNG

How to define a master geometry model?

This is a concrete example  of how to define a master geometry model using CATIA.

Step 1:

There are some elements to define:

  • The master geometry model is a 3D Part
  • The wireframe geometry define the architecture of the design solution
  • The reference geometry is parametrized and published.

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Step 2

2.1Select the appropriate licence level in TOOLS->Options
Use Knowledge Advisor workbench to create and manage user parameters

2.2Create a set of parameters

2.3Create parameters

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Step 3

Step 4

Select the geometry element to be published And use « create publication » function

Step 5

Use « Update » function to update the publications after modifications of the reference geometry

Step 6

Use « Copy » function to copy the publications in the Master Geometry model and « Paste as result with link » to paste them in the 3D Part model

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Step 7

Define the 3D Part using the duplicated publications

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Step 8 (Last step)

Update the 3D part Update the 3D part when publications are un-updated after modifications on the Master geometry model

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Space Allocation Mock-Up

The Space Allocation Mock-up is a multi skills product collecting the contribution of different domains: structure, system installation, jigs and tools, maintenance, volume, industrial means, transport means,…
The maturity gets 3 levels (A, B, C) becoming progressively more defined and validated for starting the definition models.

Space Allocation mock-up allows architecture and industrial
process validation and maintenance analysis.

Autodesk Solution

Eagle developped by Autodesk offers features like a set of PCB layout looking simple to use, schematic editing tools and so on….

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EAGLE shematic editor


Top three of cryptocurrencies fall today

Bitcoin , Ethereum and Bitcoin cash has plunged this morning at the average of -20%.

Not only thoses cryptocurrencies , but , all ather altcoins except the Ripple currency! 

May be it still unclear the reasons behind, but ,some suspect a bad news coming from china …

Bitcoin

Bitcoin plunged more than twenty percent to a low $13 528,80 -at the time of writing this post (23th december)- according to coinmarketcap.com ( which’s the source of charts)

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7day bitcoin chart

Ehtereum

Ethereum with $64 107 467 646 as a market cap, coming second after Bitcoin in term of market cap,  plunged more than 21 percent to a low of $679,08

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7 day Ethereum Chart 

Bitcoin Cash

Bitcoin cash plunged more than 30 percent to a low $2 491,95. (at the time of writting this post)

Bitcoin cash has lost his third rank after ethereum in favor of Ripple, Bitcoin cash market cap is $42 037 545 583 ( at the time of writting this post)

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7 day bitcoin cash chart

Ripple

Ripple seems to be the only currency taking advandge from this situation, in fact , Ripple rank has been advanced from the fourth to the third rank in term of maket cap ($42 284 163 992), his value has increased more than nine percent .

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Ripple chart

Less known cryptocurrencies

The other altcoins plunged also regardless of their type of thechnologies:

  • Zcash plunged more than twenty percent
  • IOTA plunged more than thirty percent
  • Peercoin plunged more than twenty percent

why Bitcoin fall.?

According to Quora discussion , china has shut down all the exchange platforms in the country , those news may have such effect in the markey place, but , why the ripple is the only cryptocurrency which dosen’t plunged?!

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Why using 3D models in aerospace?

What are the domains using 3D models in aerospace? What are the benefits from using 3D models? 

If this is the first time you read about digital mock-up click here for more explanations about this subject.

Domains using the 3D model (digital mock-up)

In aerospace industry, the digital mock-up is used in different domains during product lifecycle: engineering especially in design, manufacturing and maintenace.

Design

In design, the 3D model ( or digital mock up) is used in different subdomain: ergonomics, Assembly and structure surface validation, Stress analysis, system installation , assembly and disassembly simulation, Repairability, Kinematics and son on….

Ergonomics

Designers use the 3D models in order to define the cockpit layout, to install equipements such as seats and emergency exit,etc..That helps to study the different possible scenarios of installation, so, to optimise the cockpit design in term of security, quality and cost.

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cockpit interior

Assembly

The 3D models help to avoid erros during assembly, knowing that, manufacturing parts is decentralised, errors may have a heavy consequences, so , the role of 3D models is to help engineers to validate assemblies and Structure against Systems interface, to have better visualisation without using physical mock up.

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structure, system interface and assembly

Stress Analysis

In mechanical study , performing FEM (Finite Element Model) is crucial , some design softwares allow  to perform thoses analysis such as Alias by Autodesk , that helps to reduce lead time of finite element analysis and results allowing to optimise the weight of the aircraft.

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Finite Element Model

Kinematics

Kinematics analysis help to study the Interface detection between one moving and one static in order to: Swept volume analysis and installation control regarding the environment.

Manufacturing

The 3D mock up is used for design of elementary parts and assembly jigs in order to
Check consistency between tooling and aircraft ,Management of the subcontractors deliverables,and for Kinematics of jigs simulation performance.

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tooling model vs physic

Manufacturing plan preparation

Industrial process design is a main task withing manufacturing processes, the 3D models are used in order to help designers to:

  • Define assemblies based on process operations
  • Follow the modification and visualisation of several technical solutions
  • Use of 3D Mock-up for technical documents, shopfloor illustration

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Layout design

Quality (Control)

The 3D models are used in order to :

To measure the physical dimensions and to compare them with the digital mock-up.
To certificate the work done directly with the definition model
To assemble by measuring process (real time dmu checking).

This helps to have reliability between physical and digital mock-up.

Mock-up review

the purpose is to make sure that

  • the technical lists are coherent and to validate
  • the assembly process in partnership with all the industrial design process team members

This helps to detect eventual problems earlier than manufacturing shopfloors stages.

Maintenance and Support

The pupose behind is to :

  • Analyse aircraft servicing at the airport
  • Exploitation cost calculation
  • Identification and definition of the GHS (Ground Handling & Servicing) needed: cargo loader, bridge, trolley, catering and cleaning vehicle,…
  • To guarantee the aircraft’s exploitation feasibility

This helps to have Better productivity on ground: sequencing optimisation, security zone validation, impacts prevention

Maintainability analysis

The 3D model is used in order to:

  • To take into account inspection requirements
  • To verify the easy accessibility of the repair parts
  • To book space for maintenance with Design Office
  • Definition of maintenance sequences Customer Focus Group

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Maintainability analysis

Autodesk offers software for design , concurrent engineering, collaborative engineering and so on…..
 

 

A guide to understand Industry 4.0

In the context of internet of things, cyber-physical, Digital mock-up, virtual reality , automation and so on, industry 4.0 has emerged as a concept to design the transformation that khows the factories using those technology in term of  automation and data exchange . Industry 4.0 concept has created what is called smart factory.

Slight History

Here’s an example of techniques evolution that have transformed the industry through years:

  1. 1784: First mechanical loom was invented, Trough the introduction of mechanical, production facilities with the help of water and steam power.
  2. 1870 / First conveyor: Trough the introduction of a division of mass labor and mass production with the help of electrical energy
  3. 1969: First programmable logic controller, Trough the use of electronic and IT systems that promote automate production
  4. Today: Trough the use of cyber-physical systems

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The four evolutions

In the meantime data exchange magament has been developped.

1970: factories ( such as aerospace and automotive factories) used 2D drawing for design and engineering.

Starting from the year of 2000 : PLM, Business Process and realistic simulation has transformed the way engineering and manufacturing used to work.

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Data exchange evolution

Factory IT architecture

In a factory using industry 4.0 techniques, Manufacturing includes manufacturing activities and exchange data management.

Manufacturing activities includes Business processes management and support and training.

  • Business processes management include:
    • •Manufacturing Engineering
      •CNC and Robotic Programming
      •Measurement and Control
      •Process Optimization
  • support and training include
    • •Support for all manufacturing business
      •mDMU and Jigs & Tools
      •Qualify programs

Exchange data management includes PLM  and Manufacturing Operation Management

  • PLM: Project Life cycle Management for engineering and PLM for manufacturing
    • That includes the following:
      • CAM: Computer assistance manufacturing
        •Simulation
        •Routings: Elementary parts and Assembly
        •Jigs and tools
  • Manufacturing Operation Management includes the following:
    • •MES: manufacturing execution system
      •SCADA : Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
      •Intelligence
      •APS: Advanced Planning & Scheduling
      •Quality Management

The factory architechture looks like this:

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Factory Of industry 4.0 architecture



Project manager definition

What’s project manager definition? what’s the difference between product manager and project manager?

Project Manager

The project manager according to the product organization is responsible for Product execution and delivery, this contains:

  • Architecture/Platform development engineers
  • Coordinating resources of engineering
  • Applications development engineers
  • Test and validation
  • Planning & Scheduling
  • Project tracking & reporting

Meanwihle , product manager is responsible for the Product success or failure,his job is to discover a Product that is valuable, usable and feasible,he collaborates with the User Experience Designer, the Project Manager and the Domain Expert,he knows the user, the domain and market, the technology.

this leads us to explain the User Experience Designer job description.

The user Experience Designer :

! Is Responsible for the Product design and specs
! Understand the problem, design the solution
! Architect of the Product workflow, functions
! Designer of the look & feel
! Build specs and prototypes

Product manager VS Project Manager

Well, those jobs are different from point of view of purposes , skills and engineering definition, in fact :

  • The Product Manager want to design a good product
  • The Project Manager want to execute and deliver as
    soon as possible

Project Manager tools

Project manager needs planning project management tools, those tools maybe integrated in the entreprise softwares packages, but, this not always the case, especially for small business and individuals.

Wrike for pratical project management

According to Meet Redfoo who’s a former member of LMFAO , and who has implemented Wrike, which’s a Project management software, since implementing Wrike, Redfoo has seen an improvement in the way his team works:The team is more productive and communicate better,  Here are five of Redfoo’s Tips for Wrike success:

  • Use Wrike during meeting

It keeps his team organized. Each task and every idea goes straight into Wrike.

It also helps while brainstorming session, Adding and assigning tasks, Sharing links and uploading the latest document versions and to Discuss overdue items with the team.

  • Create Wrike tasks via email

Wrike’s email integration makes it easy to create and edit tasks on the go

  • Keep an ideas folder

    Wrike provides a secure, central location where Meet Redfoo and every user can archive every idea even before he decides what he wants to do with it

  • Use the mobile app to track tasks on the go

Wrike’s mobile apps for iOS and Android let user stay in communnication with his team. User can check project statuses, see the latest updates in his Activity Stream, and see the progress, the roadblock and leave feedback  for his team, minimizing project delays.

  • Keep all project-related items in one location

Keeping everything in one place removes the stress of scouring countless emails and spreadsheets just to find a particular document.

What about you , let’s us know How do you keep your team organized?share it in the comments.

What’s process engineer job description?

In this post we will explain the process design, in order to explain process engineer job and Define process engineering discipline.

Process design 

one of the most important task of a process engineer is processe design;  to conceive the overall shape of processes and to design processes layouts.

He has to take into consideration the process volume and variety characterisitics,Their detailed workings such as detailed analysis of the objectives, capacity and variability of the process, and processes requirement.

Processes Requirements

Volume and variety are particularly influential in the design of processes. They also tend to go together in an inverse relationship:
–High-variety processes are normally low-volume and vice versa.
•The process types are:
–project processes,
–jobbing processes,
–batch processes,
–mass processes, and
–continuous processes.

Process layouts

There are different ways in which the different resources within a process (people and technology) can be arranged relative to each other.
–layout,
–functionallayout,
–cell layout,
–and product layout

Advantages and disadvantages

each type of layout has Advantages and disadvantages, as mentioned in the table bellow:

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Process design-analysis

Within these broad parameters (variety and volume) there are many, more detailed decisions to be made that will dictate the way materials, information and customers flow through the process.
Do not dismiss these detailed design decisions as merely the ‘technicalities’ of process design.
They are important because they determine the actual performance of the process in practice and eventually its contribution to the performance of the whole business.

Analysis

The analysis stage of process design involves calculating the details of the process, in particular its objectives, sequence of activities, allocation of tasks and capacity, and its ability to incorporate the effects of variability.

The problem

Existing processes are not always sufficiently well defined or described.
Sometimes this is because they have developed over time without ever being formally recorded, or they may have been changed (perhaps improved) informally by the individuals who work in the process.
But processes that are not formally defined can be interpreted in different ways, leading to confusion and inhibiting improvement.
So, it is important to have some recorded visual descriptor of a process that can be agreed by all those who are involved in it.
This is where process mapping comes in.

Process Mapping

Process mapping at its most basic level involves describing processes in terms of how the activities within the process relate to eachother.
There are many, broadly similar, techniques that can be used for process mapping.
Different process mapping symbols are sometimes used to represent different types of activity.
They can be arranged in order, and in series or in parallel, to describe any process.
And although there is no universal set of symbols used all over the world, some are relatively common.

However, all the techniques have two main features:
–They identify the different types of activity that take place during the process.
–They show the flow of materials or people or information through the process (or, put another way, the sequence of activities that materials, people or information are subjected to).

Source: Operations and Process management, principles and pratices for strategic impact. Nigel Slacket al. PearsonEducation



Why Configuration Management is important?

In 2009, SNCF – responsible for the trains in France – ordered 341 new regional trains larger than the older ones. As the data of many platforms were not updated, the trains were larger than many of them. As a result of this non-accordance between the documents and the reality, 1300 French platforms will undergo works to get adapted to those trains.
The total cost of the reform will be 500M

What’s configuration management?

According to wikipedia, the definition of configuration management is:

“Process for establishing and maintaining consistency of a product’s performance, functional and physical attributes with its requirements, design and operational information throughout its life.”

cthis definition may be omplicated and not clear, according to Yuchun Xu et al., Configuration management in aerospace industry, the configuration management is:

a management discipline that applies technical and administrative direction to the development, production and support lifecycle of a Configuration Item. The discipline is applicable to hardware, software, processed materials, services, and related technical documentation. Configuration Management is an integral part of life-cycle management

Configuration Management is a management discipline that applies technical and administrative direction to the development, production and support lifecycle of a Configuration Item. The discipline is applicable to hardware, software, processed materials, services, and related technical documentation. Configuration Management is an integral part of life-cycle management

A little of history

This is a breif story to understand the context of configaration management, Source: Brouse, Peggy S. Configuration Management

  • 1950’s: During the missile race, prototypes were not built under documented basis leading to implementation or duplication of unnecessary items
  • 1953 : Department of Defense mandated configuration management for hardware through a bulletin describing the “Engineering Change Proposal” .
  • 60 to 90’s:Configuration Management has been often improved to be more embracing. Individual services and industries began to use this reference creating additional individual standards.
  • 1995: The International Standards Organization published the ISO 10007 “Quality management systems — Guidelines for configuration management”.
  • 2003: It was republished in order to improve the alignment with ISO 9000 family “Quality management systems — Fundamentals and vocabulary”.
  • 2020:Configuration Management is facing more and more complex product involving worldwide stakeholders. It has to be fully integrated in IT environment

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History of CM

What’s the purpose of CM?

Nowadays Configuration Management is considered as a very important discipline and it is applied in every domain despite the type of the product,configuration Management acts to avoid that the final product differs from the expected one ensuring the correct production to authorities and customers.

What are Configuration Management processes?

According to ISO 10007 Quality Management Systems – Guidelines for Configuration Management, CM is divided into five processes:

“Seeking to achieve those objectives Configuration Management is divided in 5 processes with specific actions to perform during the product lifecycle.”

those five processes are:

  • Configuration Identification ; the main aim of this process is to define the product by identifying its multi-level constituents. It allows to have a common language on the product
  • Configuration Audits;the main aim of this process is to Verify the Product which’s an internal process to the company performed in many stages of product lifecycle.
  • Configuration Status Accounting – Traceability; the main aim of this process is to Maintain valid the documents in order to be able to provide complete information on configuration and associated responsibilities at any time of the product lifecycle.
  • Change Control;the main aim of this process is to Coordinate Activities in order to evaluate the change proposals of the product regarding safety, costs, savings, trade-offs and customer requests.
  • And the last one is configuration management planning that aims to coordinate over the four processes.The configuration management planning is the foundation of the Configuration Management Process;
    It must coordinate Configuration Management activities between all impacted organization.
    Its output is the Configuration Management Plan that will stipulate the way each of the other 4 processes must work.

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What are the most important cryptocurrencies?

Blockchain technology has led to “Bitcoin”, now days Bitcoin has reached the value of more than 12000 dollars ( at the time of writing this post) so what’s Bitcoin and what are the most important cryptocurrencies?

What’s Bitcoin?

Bitcoin is a digital currency which’s decentrailzed and not controlled by any government or institution. it’s send from person to person ( peer to peer) within internet without any bank or intermediary.
Bitcoin is created by resolving complicated mathematic algorithm, and it’s limited to 21 million units.
Bitcoin is a fast and anonymous way to send money and it allowed to anyone to set up a bitcoin account.
At the beginning, Bitcoin was used especially in countries were lot of people have no bank accounts like greece  in countries in war like syria, today the bitcoin is used widely and is officially recognised as a currency, but using bitcoin is still forbiden by law in some countries like Morocco.

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Bitcoin coaster

Bitcoin is a bubble or not? I don’t know  , but for sure it’s an innovative technology, Bill Gate said :”I think Bitcoin is a tour de force”

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Bill gates : I think Bitcoin is a tour de force

Where to store Bitcoin?

In order to receive bitcoin or buy it, you need a wallet like:

What are the most important cryptocurrencies?

Bitcoin is not the only cryptocurrency, there are others:

  • Ethereum : technology different from bitcoin
  • Litecoin: is fast than Bitcoin ,but, it value depends on the Bitcoin fluctuation
  • Peercoin: Peercoin has 1% as a rate of inflation , this cryptocurrency is known as eco cryptocurrency due to his low need of energy comparing with Bitcoin

and others:NXt which’s written from scratch, Monero,etc.

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Different cryptocurrencies

There a lot of  online websites pretending to be a pool mining services, but some of them are Ponzi system.

I use Cryptominingfarm , carefuly because I think it’s a ponzi system, but they are still paying , till now I made profits as I have withdrawn quantity of Bitcoin! BUT I don’t know if this website will dispear or not as there’s no guarrantee!

there is also OXBTC.com, among others, but, it seems also a ponzi system, I don’t know if they are paying or not?  I don’t know if this website will dispear or not!


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What’s a Blockchain?

Bitcoin has now acheived the value of 10 000 dollars. when talking about bitcoin comes the blockchain, so what’s a blockchain?

Current institutional structures are drastically challenged by the rate of change of
society, technology and the environment which far outstrips their capacity to adapt.
Governments and international organizations are losing their legitimacy to competition
from entirely new structures of collective action emerging from adhocracies,
aka self-organising Information Communication Technologies (ICT)-enabled
groups and communities (Ulieru 2014). We consider four key factors fuelling
institutional change under the above mentioned disruptions. Firstly, that individuals,
ICT-enabled devices and conventional institutions are now deeply entangled.
Secondly, that is it possible to equip those devices with social intelligence to be
equal participants in society (Brynjolfsson and McAfee 2014). Thirdly, that out of
the entanglement and the intelligence, new dynamical structures emerge which are
more responsive, have greater agility and are less prone to path dependency and this
socio-technical entanglement can lead to the emergence of high quality constructive
social processes (Ulieru and Doursat 2011). And finally, that people still retain the
power to self-organise these structures and self-regulate their behaviour in the
context of these structures according to agreed rules (Chase 2015).
The book features pioneering attempts at deploying new economic models
which move the field from describing monetary flows to understanding complex
social processes that underlie the dynamics of the economy. It begins by describing

the socio-economic nature and legal challenges brought about by the emergence
and proliferation of P2P platforms. On this basis various alternatives to the centralized
approaches that rule the current financial sector—which lost its legitimacy
in 2008 by not keeping its promises to its customers—are exposed.
Pelizzon, Rieder and Tasca in the Chapter “Classification of Crowdfunding and
P2P Lending in the Financial System” give an overview of the first P2P platforms
that enabled new market structures to emerge, such as Crowdfunding. If the
emergence of P2P platforms may somehow be related to banks being under stress as
claimed by Blaseng and Koetter in the Chapter “Crowdfunding and Bank Stress”,
FinTech has continued to provide cost effective platforms as an alternative to
traditional banking. In “How Peer to Peer Lending and Crowdfunding drive the
FinTech Revolution in the UK” Chisti explains the role of P2P lending and P2P
equity markets as the drivers of the alternative finance revolution which in the UK
is experiencing some of the highest growth rates in the world. Apart from the UK,
P2P technology-enabled platforms are speedily replacing the traditional banking
services also in Asia. In particular, Barberis and Arner in the Chapter “From
Shadow Banking to P2P Lending” emphasize the regulatory challenges of P2P
lending in China: the country with the largest proliferation of P2P lending platforms
in the world. The authors argue that, due to the recently increased attention received
by the shadow banking sector and the better transparency allowed by its technological
readiness, the Chinese government now has a prime window of opportunity
to regulate non-bank finance in China without impeding economic growth, nor
risking a financial security meltdown. China would effectively transform its
last-mover advantage in the field of financial reform into a first-mover advantage.
Finally, the authors present their view of data-supported regulation, or “RegTech”.
The book continues by offering a very exciting and inquisitive incursion into the
new market dynamics brought about by the principles of decentralization and
sharing enabled by (blockchain based) P2P platforms. Although, Courtois in the
Chapter “Features or Bugs: The Seven Sins of Current Bitcoin” warns against a
number of pitfalls in the current implementation of the first and largest blockchain
application so far (i.e., Bitcoin), in the Chapter “Decentralized Banking: A Return
to Technocracy In the Digital Age”, Hayes makes the point that digital currencies
could more securely and cheaply connect the world. The invention of the Blockchain
is opening up the possibility of a different kind of monetary order run by
inviolate mathematics, not a person or committee. Further, Gavin in the Chapter
“Trustless computing—the what not the how” details how these FinTech innovations
provide more functionality than nation state monies, at a lower cost, with
safety and security achieved without armed guards and vaults and guaranteeing
stability through attractive finite issue limits, again dictated by math rather than
being subject to pressures to inflate to escape difficult political choices.
The Chapters authored by Porter and Rousse (“Reinventing Money and Lending
for the Digital Age”) on crypto currencies and Biggs (“The Opportunity for
Non-Banks in Financial Inclusion and Remittance”) on mobile money present a
number of narratives about why those FinTech innovations may be empowering for
people, especially in historically poor and financially underserved communities, as
well as in less developed countries:

• as a means to facilitate low-cost remittances for those seeking to transfer small
amounts of money internationally
• as a means for an otherwise excluded individual to have a decentralized global
bank account, accessible simply by downloading an open source wallet from the
internet, rather than having to set up with a formal financial institution
• subsequently providing the basis for a richer set of financial services, cooperative
structures and even micro-insurance systems (Scott 2016).
The Blockchain ledger is not simply for accounting monetary transactions. At its
core, it is a platform that allows people to come to agreement on virtually anything
without intermediaries. It provides a foundation to make social contracts based on the
principle of consensus. Its universality enables it to be an asset registry, inventory,
tracking, and exchange infrastructure, a universal registry, listing, and management
system for any of the world’s assets, smart property, and itemizable quanta. It is an
infrastructure which provides society’s public records repository, a representative
and participatory legal and governance system. Thus the Blockchain is poised to
become a social technology for whole new institutional forms of economies sporting
new market dynamics. Brought about by the principles of decentralization and
sharing enabled by (blockchain based) P2P platforms, a deeper societal transformation
is catalyzed, resulting in the basis of economic life being mutual cooperation
and solidarity, rather than individual competition for narrow economic success. The
idea is that in removing the need to trust central authorities (as Gavin clarifies in the
Chapter on Trustless Computing), blockchains could be platforms upon which one
can build new forms of non-hierarchal cooperation between strangers.
While formal market systems may be a source of economic growth and individual
enhancement, they are simultaneously the source of social inequality, individual
alienation and community disintegration. In essence, the cryptographic
apolitical purity of a blockchain system appears not just as a way to stop abusive
people who control central institutions, but as a way to once-and-for-all resolve the
problem of how to establish contractual relationships between untrustworthy human
beings who seek out their self-interest (Scott 2016). Aste, Caccioli and Livan
(“Scalability and Egalitarianism in peer-to-peer networks”) further prove using
network theory that there is a trade-off egalitarianism vs efficiency for Blockchain
based communities. Further, Barberis and Arner (From Shadow Banking to P2P
Lending) and Chishti (How Peer to Peer Lending and Crowdfunding drive the
FinTech Revolution in the UK) show how in deploying such decentralized platforms
cryptocurrency is interesting because it has features that potentially allow for
non-hierarchal self-organization and peer-to-peer collaboration within a communitarian
network structure.
With advances in Blockchain technology now removed from the constraints of
Bitcoin, it is possible to encode smart contracts as algorithms that will act as a
trusted enforcer of agreements. Sclavonius et al. (“Are Transaction Costs Drivers of
Financial Institutions? Contracts Made in Heaven, Hell, and The Cloud in
Between”) offer a review of how technological innovation is changing transaction
costs and therefore the economic and financial system. They explain the
socio-economic impacts of “smart contracts”: modules of computer code that run
on blockchains and can be programmed to transfer tokens of value, enable access to
resources or otherwise automate functions based on conditions. This opens the
perspective of increased access to critical financial services for all, creating more
transparent democracies, and developing services that dramatically reduce barriers
for global commerce. Panay (“Understanding Modern Banking Ledgers through
Blockchain Technologies: Future of Transaction Processing and Smart Contracts
on the Internet of Money”) deepens this understanding by illustrating how smart
contracts can ensure financial stability. E.g. if the economy is growing too rapidly,
the rate of money formation should be reduced over the next time period. In such
instance, smart contracts working on behalf of a virtual organization could engage
in purchases of foreign currencies in FOREX markets, as well as stabilize prices by
purchasing bonds and equity in exchange for its stock of digital currency. Further,
in order to quickly reduce the money supply outstanding, smart contracts could
feasibly buy up existing digital currency and even destroy some of that currency by
sending it to an unusable wallet address. This would have a similar effect to raising
interest rates in that it would make money more scarce on the margin, that is, more
expensive. Such intelligent virtual organizations running via smart contracts and
acting as monetary authority can truly be removed from government, central
authorities, or the influence from policymakers and corporate lobbying, thus
opening the perspective of a more fair society with fair exchanges (Ulieru 2014).
Beyond the financial applications though, the Blockchain 2.0 movement is
characterized by emergent attempts to build digital currencies with a focus on
understanding the value created by online peer-production communities, and how
such value can be used as a means to support and encourage the process of
commons-based peer-production envisioned as a means of exchange for explicitly
cooperative and collaborative enterprises that exist outside the logic of normal
market processes.
Open question for those inspired by such Blockchain 2.0 platforms is whether
blockchain systems can be a basis upon which people can easily interact with
distant strangers for collaboration at scale. In this vision, the objective is to replace
hierarchal centralized institutions with decentralized ones, but the point of doing
this is (as we mentioned above) not to once-and-for-all perfect a means for naturally
self-interested individual humans to contract with each other. Rather it is to allow
naturally social beings to flourish and collaborate with each other in a spirit of
cooperation, not individualistic competition. (Ulieru 2014). There are already creative
initiatives to strengthen political accountability through the use of this technology.
For example London mayoral candidate George Galloway is calling for the
city to adopt Blockchain-based accounting in order to provide full transparency for
the public of the city’s financial activities. The Mayor’s Chain Project aims to put
the city’s annual budget on a Blockchain to foster collective auditing by citizens.
The Blockchain thus, creates incentive for participants to work honestly where
rules are applied to all equally. The Blockchain fosters a true consent of the governed
through voluntary participation and enables self-regulation taken up by each
choosing to abide by the rule of consensus. Foremost, the Blockchain enables a
larger function of accounting; performing checks and balance on the self interests
300 M. Ulieru
and the corruptible tendencies that exist in society. Unlike traditional representative
models of governance, where systems of checks and balance are exercised through
third parties, under bitcoin’s consensus model, accountability is distributed directly
and exercised by all in the network. With the blockchain’s transparency, those who
prefer profit without work will have no place to run and no place to hide. What
emerges in this innovation is a new form of social accountability (Scott 2016). On
this foundation we can envision a city network of informal street vendors running a
collective mutual insurance pool between themselves using only their smartphones
to interact with a distributed ledger system, with no central financial institution
involved. Or a regional mutual credit system—effectively a ledger of credits and
debits—implemented in a decentralized blockchain form (Scott 2016).
To this extent the blockchain becomes a technology for building new economies,
as MacDonald, Allen, and Potts expose in the Chapter “Blockchains and the
Boundaries of Self-Organized Economies: Predictions for the Future of Banking”.
As “the secure, verifiable, trustless (i.e. cryptographically secure) mechanism to
record the actions upon the rules” the Blockchain becomes a social technology for
whole new institutional forms of economies. More precisely the Blockchain enables
the deployment of emergent temporary catallaxies, aka economies rooted in the
very “adhocracies” featured in the title, and which we introduced in the beginning
of this concluding Chapter. As “a foundation for social order, built on mathematical
truth as verified, rather than political force as threatened”, the Blockchain becomes
“a source of welfare” acquired from releasing “the vast captured resources we have
hitherto devoted to artificially manufacturing trust” into adhocracies that embody a
“pure task economy where you find your people, you make your rules, and you do
your thing”.
Pioneering examples of such decentralized collaborative platforms enabling the
deployment of adhocracies include: Backfeed (http://backfeed.cc/)—a
Blockchain-enabled reputation based platform aiming to eliminate intermediaries
from peer-to-peer exchanges; Sensorica (http://www.sensorica.co/)—a maker platform
for collaborative design of specialized high end technical products, which runs
an original “Value Accounting System” on a “Network Resource Planning” background
to guarantee that participants are rewarded fairly according to their respective
contributions (Turgeon et al. 2014); and Hylo (https://www.hylo.com/)—a
co-creation platform catalysing communities around common intentions to bring the
right skill set and resources to the right project timely.
Future studies are needed to reveal the respective legal frameworks in which these
and other platforms operate (Dawson and Bynghall 2011), as well as the viability of
alternative governance models—combining regulation by code, smart contracts and
social norms—implemented by these platforms on top of the legal framework, either
as a complement or a supplement to the former. Hypotheses such as those posed by
Bollier et al. (Bollier et al. 2015) regarding the deployment of collaborative entities
that issue blockchain-based shares—or crypto-equity tokens—that give the holders
ownership or membership rights in a type of decentralized cooperative, need to be
tested. How such organizations might end up looking in the real world remains to be
Blockchain 2.0 and Beyond: Adhocracies 301
seen, but they may be an interesting new form to explore in the quest to build social
and solidarity-based finance (Scott 2016).
The ultimate quest concerns the emergence of adhocracies in a catallaxy and
their societal transformative potential, with focus on how the Blockchain technologies
enable implicit trusted exchanges in an open environment. In other words:
How to enable large scale, free and systematic cooperation in a self-organizing
manner that will produce constructive social and economic dynamics? (Ulieru
2014). How can social interactions be aligned with macro-level goals and how
policies steering action towards goal achievement can emerge from such interactions?
(Pitt et al. 2012). The answer we hope will contribute to the creation of more
tools that facilitate the governance of online communities, and increase the innovative
potential and productivity of commons-based peer-production platforms.
As an infrastructure which provides society’s public records repository, a representative
and participatory legal and governance system, Blockchain technology
has the potential to benefit people with privacy, security and freedom of conveyance
of data—which clearly ranks up there with life, liberty and the pursuit of
happiness (Roszak 2016).
References
Bollier, D., de Filippi, P., Dietz, J., Shadab, H., van Valkenberg, P., Xethalis, G.: Distributed
collaborative organisations: distributed networks & regulatory frameworks. Coin Center Working
Paper. http://bollier.org/sites/default/files/misc-fileupload/files/DistributedNetworksandtheLaw%
20report,%20SwarmCoin%20Center-Berkman.pdf (2015). Accessed 17 Aug 2015
Brynjolfsson, E., McAfee, A.: The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a
Time of Brilliant Technologies. W. W. Norton, New York (2014)
Chase, R.: Peers Inc: How People and Platforms are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and
Reinventing Capitalism. Public Affairs, NY (2015)
Dawson, R., Bynghall, S.: Getting Results from Crowds: the Definitive Guide to Using
Crowdsourcing to Grow Your Business. Advanced Human Technologies, San Francisco
(2011)
Pitt, J., Schaumeier, J., Artikis, A.: Axiomatization of socio-economic principles for
self-organizing institutions: concepts, experiments and challenges. Trans. Auton. Adapt. Sys.
7(4), 1–39 (2012)
Roszak, M.: Blockchain testimony to the US Congress. http://docs.house.gov/meetings/IF/IF17/
20160316/104677/HHRG-114-IF17-Wstate-RoszakM-20160316.pdf (2016). Accessed 16 Mar
2016
Scott, B.: How can Cryptocurrency and Blockchain technology play a role in building social and
solidarity finance? UNRISD Report, Feb 2016. (http://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BCCF9/
(httpAuxPages)/196AEF663B617144C1257F550057887C/$file/Brett%20Scott.pdf)
Turgeon, N., Thai, M., Epuran, G.: ODH start-ups’ business development challenges: the case of
sensorica from a total integrated marketing perspective. Int. J. Econ. Pract. Theor. 4(2) (2014).
Special issue on Marketing and Business Development, e-ISSN: 2247–7225
Ulieru, M., Doursat, R.: Emergent engineering: a radical paradigm shift. Int. J. Auton. Adapt.
Commun. Syst. (IJAACS) 4(1) (2011)
Ulieru, M.: Organic governance through the logic of holonic systems. In: Clippinger, J., Bollier, D.
(eds.) From Bitcoin to Burning Man and Beyond, ID3 2014, pp. 113–129 (2014)
302 M. Ulieru
Author Biography
Mihaela Ulieru works with many governments and organizations
seeking to make ICT an integral component policy making
for a healthier, safer, more sustainable and innovation-driven
world. She founded two research labs leading several international
large-scale projects, among which: Organic Governance,
Adaptive Risk Management, Self-organizing Security, Living
Technologies and Emulating the Mind. Coaching young people
to value relationships and making powerful introductions to
assist them, has contributed to their ongoing success. One
example is Garrett Camp, founder of StumbleUpon and Uber,
whom she guided for his MSc degree one decade ago. For her
results which have positively impacted citizens in emerging and
advanced economies including Asia Pac, North America and
Europe she was awarded, among many others, the “Industrial
Research Chair in Intelligent Systems” and the “Canada
Research Chair in e-Society” and was appointed to numerous boards among which the Science
Councils of Singapore, Canada and European Commission and to the Global Agenda Council of
the World Economic Forum. She is a Research Professor at Carleton University, Global Leader
with the Aspen Institute and Chief Innovation Officer of Affectio, the first Blockchain-enabled
human data analytics platform fueling personal empowerment.

Are there methods to be creative?

How a team works in order to developp new products? Is there method to make someone  create new ideas? How innovation and new ideas can be generated ? How they work in crearive sessions? 

In fact there are lot of methods used in development and research services in order to lead their teams to developp new products, as example TRIZ is a well known as a innovative method of problem solving.and there are more…But Why companies look for innovation?

The blue ocean

In marketing the red ocean is to design a market full of competitors, companies are like sharks whom kill each other.

Meanwhile , the blue ocean is a market not yet known where there are opportunities to grow up and increase benefits, and there’ s too much competitors, the blue ocean express the wide range of opportunities.

In order to jump into this blue ocean companies have tendance to create new products

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Create new markets

Creativity

The creativity can be defined as the ability of creating new ideas using individual or collective imagination.

there major steps of creativity:

  • Produce ideas
  • precise ideas
  • screen ideas
  • Implement the ideas

Produce Ideas

usually the number of people involved in a creativity session is between 5 and 8 persons, to produce ideas there are many methods, Purge, Brainstorming,Reversing, Kent & Rosanoff list and Mind mapping.

Purge

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The purge

The purpose of this method is to have all the ideas classified, displayed and viewd by all the team for instance as shown in the picture.

Timing of this step is between 10 min to 20 min.

Brainstorming

The purpose of the brainstorming is to the maximmum possible of ideas in the shortest possible time, tiùming of this step is between 30 and 60 minutes.

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Brainstorming

Reversing

Reversing consists on finding solutions for the opposite of the initial problem, for example if the problem is about cold fuction , the inversing consists on fiding solution of hot function.

Timing is between 30 and 60 minutes.

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Inversion

Kent & Rosanoff list

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Kent & Rosanoff list

This list contains 100 words which supposed to stimulate , to inspire the team for producing new ideas.

timing is 10 to 15 minutes.

Mind mapping

Mind mapping is used to generate and structure ideas by establishing the links and levels related to the the initial problem.

In a creative session you can choose one or more than one method of producing ideas , finally, you should remember the rules of ideas producing

  • Note all the ideas
  • Don’t criticize any idea even the most  crazy!
  • Be yourself and be Free!
  • keep away your mobile phone




Why being an engineer may be frustrating

Recently I read a letter from a singapore school administration to the parents of students .At the end of this letter was written: “Please, do not think that engineers and doctors are  the only happy people in the world”. In fact lot of engineers I know are frustrated and really not happy!

Parents always want for their children the best of everything, amongst  best of jobs, so they decide that their children must be engineer, they will have a good salary, good social position then they will be happy. But, this is not always true, lot of engineers are frustrated about their salaries which didn’t meet their expectations,frustrated about the core of jobs they are doing because most of time,they are executing boring tasks, dealing with horrible bosses, and the most important,they are doing what they deeply don’t LIKE to do. What if the child has another vision?

What about the child dream? what if he wants to be a writer, athlete, journalist, artist, he doesn’t care about math and physiscs even about the most brilliants stephen hawking ideas! if it’s the case the letter demands “to not take away their self-confidence and dignity from them!”  .Let your child decide what he wants to do with his own life, and I really appreciate what was written in the singaporian letter: it predicts,if parents do so , they can watch their children conquer the world.

If it’s the case,tell them please : do not destroy Iraq or another country, teach them love and peace!.

here bellow the very USEFUL singaporian letter:

23658745_10154750621371256_7346210935057695551_n.jpg


System architecture Vocabulary

In this post you will find some accurate explanations of some common words and acronyms used in data architecture.

Server?

Server: is a physical hardware that performs tasks on behalf of clients. On the server operates a relational database that stores and manages all the information

What Metadata base is for?

Metadata base: The task of the metadata base is to handle relationships between individual pieces of product data, the structure of the information, and the rules and principles needed to ensure the systematic recording of the information.

What’s a Fileserver?

Fileserver (file vault): it is a warehouse for information data, stored in files, which meets certain set demands. It holds information of particular importance that must be frozen in a state (static information).

What’s an application server?

Application Server (Web application server): The user access to the server is made by a client application installed on the PC’s. This access can be made either via local network or remotely via web.

What’s Web client?

Web client (user): Is the end user that performs activities using different applications software (Office, CAD software, etc).

Enterprise (engineering) Change Notice -ECN

Enterprise (engineering) Change Notice is used as the authority to actually make changes to parts and document, as well as the notification that the items have changed. An ECN (  Enterprise (engineering) Change Notice) is used to add new parts or documents, to change parts or documents, or to mark them for deletion.

Problem Report -PR

PR -Problem Report is used to report any problem with a part or document; can be initiated by company employees, or customers. A Problem Report is used to report any found problem. It does not force any kind of resolution, nor does it automatically initiate a corrective process.

Enterprise (engineering) Change-ECR

ECR -Enterprise (engineering) Change Request is used to request a change in a part or document.

An ECR is usually either a response to some PRs or a result of proactive thinking used to identify a problem

Technical Review Board -TRB

Technical Review Board is The first of three change board functions is the conducting of a technical review (impact analysis) of each proposed change.

Change Review Board-CRB

The second board function is the review and disposition (approval or disapproval) of each proposed change.

Change Implementation Board-CIB

The third board function is the creation of the implementation plan and establishment of the effectivityfor each approved change

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Change Management

Reference
Institute of Configuration Management
http://www.software-quality-assurance.org/cmmi-configuration-management.html


What’s frustrating about 3D printing

The mass market considering 3D printers good for any task/creation.There’s prediction that the 3D printer will  widespread in every industry and house! regarding the low cost of some 3D printers ,some optimistics predict that it will be a piece of cake of everybody to create items with 3D printer!is it true? ! 

The 3D printing or the additive manufacturing isn’t a piece of cake matter ,It’s a hard work, you can’t just design a model and send it to 3D printer ! it’s a complicated operation! that requires lot of time, passion and concentration.There are principal phases and tools you have to learn about, and important decisions that you have to make!

Model aquisition

How to built the geometrical model ? there are two pricipal methodes:

STL conversion

After having your model by either designing 3D model or scanning a physical product , you have to transfer this file to the 3D printer , you have to be aware of the interoperbility issue as I mentioned above there many CAD tools, so there are many geomtric file types.

according to (Robert R. Robert R. Lipman , Jeremy S.McFarlane , Exploring Model Model -Based Engineering Concepts for Additive) here are some file formats:

  • STL: unstructed triangles defined by vertices, normal vectors
  • AMF:Mesh defined by list of vertices and triangles indexed to the vertices, normal and edge vectors, curved triangles, recursive subdivision
  • 3MF:Mesh defined by list of vertices and triangles indexed to the vertices
  • STEP: Mesh defined by list of vertices and triangles indexed to the vertices, normal vectors, groups of triangles, edges, multiple tessellations, association with exact geometry and tolerances

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Wich material to use?

How to choose the best material for your product? Should you use PLA because it’s cheap? PETG because it’s a reasonable compromise? or should you use Nylon because because of it strength?

Also you have to consider whether you should use a composite or a single material.

Machine Setup

There are a lot of parameters you have to consider:

  •  temperature of the hotend and the bed
  • which supports to use
  • How to remove the supports without damaging the product quality
  • the bed level
  • The part orientation in the printing bed
  • The infill percentage

You can build the model via two method : design via CAD toos or model aquisition via reverse engineering thechniques

The 3D printing or additive manufacturing allows to create item in small quantites while manufactureres prefer not to do as it not so profitable for them , such as prosthetics.

However, items made using the 3D printing or additive manufacturing might not have the long-term integrity of items made from traditional molding, and ceramics.


 

Geometric Reverse Engineering

Reverse engineering is a reciproc process where you start from the end! as example when you have a shopfloor process already done but without any treacability ! so you start by using suitable modelling language to modelize it . when you have a product and you want to have it geometrical model , this is  Geometric reverse engineering.

Geometric reverse engineering

One defintion of geometric reverse engineering is the process of obtaining a geometric model from a real manufactured part acquired by 3D measuring and digitizing techniques.

There are main phases:

  • Point Acquisition
  • Point Processing (filtering, Point Processing meshing, topology construction, registration, , meshing, topology construction, registration, etc)
  • Model development

Geometric reverse engineering techniques

There are so many techniques and machine used in  Geometric reverse engineering, such as:

  • Laser point scanning (1D)
  • Laser range scanning ( 2D)
  • Constructed lighting (3D
  • photometric stereo, etc

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reverse engineering machines

There are also many categories of geometrical reverse engineering Thechniques , which could be :

  • Active optical, under this category there are five types: Optical triangulation, Optical interferometry, confocal micriscipy, deflectometry and Time of flight.
    • Systems which are using the technique of Optical triangulation are
      • Laser point scanning (1D)
      • Laser range scanning ( 2D)
      • Constructed lighting (3D)
    • Systems which are using the technique of Optical interferometry,
      • Moiré interferometry
      • White light interferometry
    • Systems which are using the technique of Confocal micriscipy are:
      • Chromatic confocal imaging
      • Mono Confocal Imaging
  • Passive optical, under this category there are four systems: Stereoscopic, Shape from shading, Photometric stereo and profile vision
  • Computer tomography
  • Acoustic
  • Magnetic
  • Touch trigging , under this category  there are three systems: Kinematic resistance, stain gauge and piezo shock
  • Touch scanning, under this category there are two systems : passive and active.

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Mono Confocal Imaging

 

Engineering Vocabulary

Here are some concepts and acronyms explanation that helps everyone intersted in engineering and technology.

Virtual Manufacturing

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Virtual manufacturing

A virtual manufacturing means the implementation of digital technologies that allow modeling, simulation, collaboration, verification, interaction and validation of the design product and the manufacturing process.

Ubiquitous Manufacturing

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Augmented reality

To have the capability of real time traceability, visibility and interoperability in improving the performance of work stations planning, execution, and control using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, sensor networks and augmented reality

DFMA

This is the acronym of Design For Manufacture and Assembly, this a methodology adopted to improve the design  of a product for determined objective.

This method permits the following benefits:

  • Lower development cost
  • Shorter development time
  • Higher quality
  • Incorporate domain specific constraints early in the design phase

Here’s an example of DFMA design improvement:

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DFMA design improvement

DMU

DMU is an acronym of Digital Mock-up which is a digital alternative  to constructing physical prototypes.

STEP-NC

STEP compliant numerical control is a standard for exchanging data between CAD, CAM and CNC machine tools.STEP NC answers the question “What to do?” throufgh three essential concepts : Working step, Feature and operation.

You will find task description , machining feature catalog and so on.

PDM

PDM is an acronym of Project data management ,this means management of product data by the means of softwares

Reverse Engineering

according to CRC press 2010  reverse engineering is “Reverse engineering (RE) is a process of measuring, analyzing,  and testing to reconstruct the mirror image of an object or retrieve a past testing  It is a technology of reinvention, road map leading to reconstruction and reproduction. it’s also the art of applied science for preservation of the design intent of the original part.

“RE is the process of duplicating an item functionally and dimensionally by pgysical examining and measuring existing parts to develop the technical data resuired for competitive procurement ” MIL HDBK, 2006

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Reverse engineering compared with normal one

 

How product goes from Craddle to grave

What are the keys aspect of a product life cycle?

The Product or System Life Cycle comprises all phases that the product or system goes through from the Idea to its End-of-Life and Revival. The principal phases that a product or system typically runs through in its life cycle are Design, Manufacturing, Distribution, Customization, and the End of Life –including revival. In integrated design, we always have to take into account the closed life cycle, and thus integrated design goes beyond the often-cited notion of “from craddle to grave”.

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Product Life cycle

If we look at the Product/System Life Cycle in terms of material flow, we will find that along the life cycle, raw materials are transformed in fabrication processes, physical products are distributed and used on customer side. Once they have reached their end of life there, product can be directly re-used, or they can be decomposed, and used materials are transformed to raw materials by Recycling, or brought back to fabrication by Remanufacturing.

Different views of products lifecycle

There are two main views:

  • Manufacturer
  • User

For the manufacturer , the main goal is to make profit.

from user point of view , the main goals are: high quality, high performance and high utilization.

so from those two axes , we can extract diferents views of a product or a system according to the phases that the product goes through:

  • As requested: As the product or system should be build , also , called as designed
  • As build: this concern assembly process
  • As maintained: service  or usage
  • As recycled: Disassembly or recycling

How to support thoses different product views

In order to be able to establish anintegrated view of the product/system lifecycle, we need tools that support the representation of theproduct/system indifferent structures. Forexample, to represent theproduct/system“as-required”,we need to have a view of the product/system structure interms of its requirements.To represent it“as-designed”,we need to have a view on the design structure of the product/system, including the models representing the product shape(most notablyCAD models),its functions,and its parameters.


3D Printing technology and benefit

3D Printing or additive manufacturing is a thechnology that creates physical prototypes of 3D solids from their digital models.

Here are some examples of additive manufacturing products:

How to create the physical products?

Additive manufacturing processes differ  depending on the material and machine technology  used.

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) group define seven categories of additive manufacturing processes:

  • Vat photopolymerization
  • Material Jetting
  • Binder Jetting
  • Powder BedFusion
  • Material Extrusion
  • Direct energy deposition
  • Sheet lamination

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General Additive manufacturing process

The first step is to design the 3D model, this can be done by many methods ( CAD softwares, CT scanning and 3D photography).

The second step is STL conversion done by Computer aided process planning : the main phases are : File repair and preprocess ,model decomposition and so on.

the third step is file transfer to machine ( additive manufacturing machine) ,after that come the machine setup and model building .Finally , come the last step which’s postprocessing : remove supports, improve finish and inspect model.

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Weight reduction due to additive manufacturing  Benefits

weight reduction is one of AM benefits, let see the example of steel buckle:

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Steel back optimisation

steel buckle: 155g comparing with Titanum buckle only 70 g that means 55% of reduction

For an Airbus 380 with all economy seating
(853 seats),  a reduction of 72.5 kg

Over the airplane’s lifetime  3.3million

liters of fuel (2 mil. Euro saved)

Source: SAVING project/Crucible Industrial
Design Ltd.; Roland Berger


 

Simulated Reality

Simulated reality is an old concept that allows people to get involved into a virtual world called simulation. this concept has a huge application in diffent fields: video games, industry, science ,medicine and so on.

Every video gamer can notice the big difference between the first version of FIFA ( as example) and the last one, the modeling has been improved significantly .

What are the factors that influence the model quality and make it looks like a real one?

The most important factor is the geometry modelling degree of details!

Let explain first that there are different types of modelling :

  • Constructive Solid geometry
  • Voxel
  • B-Rep
  • Meshing

To understand well here’s an illustration

Different types of modeling
Different types of modeling

Now look at the picture and compare the modelling with 15 000 polygons and the the other one with only 1000 Polygons, But, to not forget that much more polygons, much more required memory capacity of machine ( CPU/GPU calculation).

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Degree of details for a geometry model

Virtual reality tools

There are many methods of navigation through virtual reality , such as :

Ray casting
Path drawing
Walking in place
Lean based velocity
Joy Pad/ Joy stick

you can walk, jump when you are just in your place!

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Virtual reality methods

Many tools have been developped , each one is used according to its charateristics and use purposes, here bellow a useful list of virtual reality tools.

Workbench

Worbench
Worbench

The workbench is characterized by

  • High resolution of modeling,
  • Limited field vision

It’s used mainly in:

  • Assembly visualisation
  • Objects manipulation
  • Task simulation

Cave

The cave is charaterized by

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CAVE

  • Having from 2 to 6 faces
  • Larger vision field

It’s used mainly in:

  • Task simulation
  • Environmental simulation
  • Project review
  • Modelisation

Wall

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The wall is charaterized by:

  • High resolution
  • High quality of colors and shading

Mains uses are:

  • Esthetic assessment
  • Project review

Headset

The headstes are charactirezed by

  • Limited vision field
  • Low degree of resolution
  • 360° degree if tracking

The main uses  of Headset in virtual reality are:

  • Environmental simualtion
  • Task simulation


TRIZ for problem solving

TRIZ is the acronym for “Teorija Reshenija Izobretateliskih Zadatch” in Russian, a theory developed by Genrich Altshuller since 1946.

It is called TIPS in English, an acronym for Theory of Inventive Problem Solving.

We can define 5 different level of innovation, from an apparent solution to a real discovery, trough minor improvement, major improvement and new concept.
Of course the discovery is really an exception, when apparent solution and minor improvement concern about 77% of the innovative solutions.
The knowledge needed to propose an invention can be the own knowledge of a person, or the knowledge of the enterprise, of an industrial sector, a transfer between different industry or have to mobilize the whole set of sciences.

It is often difficult to directly solve a specific problem, finding the specific solution.
Altshuller proposed to define first the specific problem and then to transform this problem in a higher generic problem called the standard problem. The TRIZ method gives standard solutions for standard problems. At the end of the process, we must adapt the standard solution to found our specific solution.

Basic concepts

Concept 1

An ideal result a designer would have to achieve is a result where all the required functions are assumed and all the possible disadvantages are eradicated.
Such ideality can be valuate with the ideality ratio, the ratio between the sum of the useful functions by the sum of the prejudicial functions and the costs. An ideal product satisfy all the requirements without disadvantage and at no cost!

Concept 2

A well established problem is a problem half solved , as the saying goes. But such well established problem conducts also toward a well known solution, and not often toward an innovative solution.
It is why Altshuller claims that an invention is the result of a contradiction. It is because we have a conflict between two functionalities or two technical solutions we need to answer the functionalities that we have to think about a new way to formulate the problem.

Types of contradictions

There are two types:

  • Technical
  • Physical

The technical contradiction happens when we cannot improve a specification without to degrade an other one. By example, to choose steel as material instead of wood for a beam increases his resistance but also increases his weight, that is good for the first but bad for the second.
The tools: resolution matrix and the forty principles are used to solve such contradiction.
The physical contradiction happens when the same element has to respect two contradictory modalities.
The separation principle can solve this kind of contradiction.

Principales of Innovation

Altshuller edicts forty principles of innovation, such as segmentation, extraction, local quality, asymmetry, merging, universality, inversion, …
Each of these principles include some proposal, such as to divide an object in independent parts or to facilitate the disassembly of an object for the segmentation.

Example of container

where the thickness of the wall monitors the resistance and the weight.
If we need to increase the resistance and in a same time to decrease the weight, we get a physical conflict with the thickness parameter..
If we use the separation in space, the thickness may be increase only in the place where the resistance has to be increased, and decreased elsewhere.

TRIZ principals

Segmentation

  • To divide a product in independents parts
  • To facilitate the disassembly

Assymmetry

To change symmetrical form of an object to an asymmetrical one

Inversion

To inverse the action example instead of warming an object , cool it

TRIZ tools

TRIZ tools are used for the resolution of the technical or physical contradiction, to propose standards resolution for a problem known with a substance and a field, to suggest some evolution principles for technological systems and to research the ideality.

Technical contradictions resolution:

Examples

The purpose is to increase the resistance of this container without to increase its weights, the solution is to use composites

In a high pressure tank , composite is used with Kevlar49,epoxy and titanium, which leads to decreasing the weight by 25%.

To remember

A system is always constituted of four components: an engine, a transmission, a control unit and a work unit

-A feasible system permit the free flow of energy among its parts

-A system try to coordinate its rhythms

-A system try to reach ideality


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Product modeling languages

Having talked about product modeling in the last post, through this post I will explain some important engineering modelling languages.

Modeling languages is the link between computer programming languages and the prodcut or service;there’s a wide range of modelling languages, some of them are domain-specific, others are multi-domain, and some even universal and general-purpose.

SysML

let’s began with SysML which’s a general-purpose one.SysML supports systems and systems-of-systems specification, analysis, design, verification and validation . SysML is an extension of the software-centric Unified Modelling Language (UML), which has been declared as an ISO standard by the OMG (Object Management Group).

STEP

Capture
STEP model example

Differents CAD systems drive the need to create language to exchange geometrical models genarated by those CAD systems, STEP is one of the modelling languages which meet this need, in fact,STEP facilitates Model exchange rather than tool integration, which is why its development has been strongly driven by users of CAD systems.

Modelica

The open, object-oriented description language Modelica is a highly innovative approach to integrated product modelling. Rather than focussing on the exchange of models, Modelica enables the complete description and mapping of the physical properties of a system, the integration of corresponding CAD models, and their dynamic simulation. Modelica is extensible by application-specific libraries, from which more than a hundred already exist.
Modelica has been standardized, and is fully documented. This has led to numerous academic open-source as well as commercial tools and environments


Essential methods in Design

This post interest designers, engineers, students, managers and job seekers, it aims to simplify the just need and product modeling methods as they are essential methods in design (by clicking you can read the previous post about design thinking)

Just Need Approach

The main question here is which functions the product or the service has to fulffil? the answer must specify the real expectations of all stakeholders in product or service lifecycle,in fact, evey stakeholder must be an an active member in the design process, therefore, he has to define his expectations in terms of requirements and constraints as soon as possible, but only if he can justify this expectations/need.

Bringing together all concerned stakeholders may not be possible,so, it’s imporatant to pursue a structured approach that helps all concerned stakholders to better understand the product or the service ,

The product/service must be decomposed into functions and structure in order to :

  • choose the physical principles  related to the function,
  • evaluate the the principles,
  • choose one or several ones

the fact of decomposing the product or service into functions and structures is an architects task,as they normally have the complete overview and understanding of the product. Those experts who have a very good insight into technological solution approaches (i.e., the technologists) are then required to propose technological solutions that fulfil the functional requirements best. They take into account domain-independent physical principles that can be applied to the specific system, and they structure the product/system according to the principle of functional surfaces. These surfaces are those which are essential to implement a certain functionality of the system.
At the end of this step, the product/service is specified in terms of functional surfaces and design parameters. These elements give highly valuable indications on which experts have to be involved to develop and manufacture the individual parts of the product/service.

The identified experts have to assign values to the identified design parameters. To achieve this aim along the emerging process of integrated design, the actors of the product life-cycle have to intervene according to the Just-Need rule.

Product modeling

Product Modelling is a method to build a digital representation of a product in terms of
data describing the product,it contains the following elements:

  • knowledge model consists of Features and production rules
  • data model consists of:
    • components
    • links
    • relation

Each Stakeholder represents a particular profession and has his proper particular view on the project. A set of features and production rules isavailable to each stakeholder, shared by some stakeholders or shared by all stakeholders. These features are called vernacular, vehicular, and universal features, respectively.

You have to take into account the fact that you can put into a knowledge model associated with a particular product/system only knowledge that you have and that is conscious to you.

Building a knowledge model for a given product/service involves expressing conscious knowledge as factual knowledge and as temporal or procedural knowledge. Factual knowledge concerns the product/system itself, whereas temporal or procedural knowledge concerns its transformation notably in course of the production process.

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