Essential methods in Design

This post interest designers, engineers, students, managers and job seekers, it aims to simplify the just need and product modeling methods as they are essential methods in design (by clicking you can read the previous post about design thinking)

Just Need Approach

The main question here is which functions the product or the service has to fulffil? the answer must specify the real expectations of all stakeholders in product or service lifecycle,in fact, evey stakeholder must be an an active member in the design process, therefore, he has to define his expectations in terms of requirements and constraints as soon as possible, but only if he can justify this expectations/need.

Bringing together all concerned stakeholders may not be possible,so, it’s imporatant to pursue a structured approach that helps all concerned stakholders to better understand the product or the service ,

The product/service must be decomposed into functions and structure in order to :

  • choose the physical principles  related to the function,
  • evaluate the the principles,
  • choose one or several ones

the fact of decomposing the product or service into functions and structures is an architects task,as they normally have the complete overview and understanding of the product. Those experts who have a very good insight into technological solution approaches (i.e., the technologists) are then required to propose technological solutions that fulfil the functional requirements best. They take into account domain-independent physical principles that can be applied to the specific system, and they structure the product/system according to the principle of functional surfaces. These surfaces are those which are essential to implement a certain functionality of the system.
At the end of this step, the product/service is specified in terms of functional surfaces and design parameters. These elements give highly valuable indications on which experts have to be involved to develop and manufacture the individual parts of the product/service.

The identified experts have to assign values to the identified design parameters. To achieve this aim along the emerging process of integrated design, the actors of the product life-cycle have to intervene according to the Just-Need rule.

Product modeling

Product Modelling is a method to build a digital representation of a product in terms of
data describing the product,it contains the following elements:

  • knowledge model consists of Features and production rules
  • data model consists of:
    • components
    • links
    • relation

Each Stakeholder represents a particular profession and has his proper particular view on the project. A set of features and production rules isavailable to each stakeholder, shared by some stakeholders or shared by all stakeholders. These features are called vernacular, vehicular, and universal features, respectively.

You have to take into account the fact that you can put into a knowledge model associated with a particular product/system only knowledge that you have and that is conscious to you.

Building a knowledge model for a given product/service involves expressing conscious knowledge as factual knowledge and as temporal or procedural knowledge. Factual knowledge concerns the product/system itself, whereas temporal or procedural knowledge concerns its transformation notably in course of the production process.

1 Comment

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.